Tango - Various - Die Deutsche Schlagerparade Vol. 2 (Cassette)
Contemporary Tango Festival is dedicated to the global variety of Tango Argentino and the impact of this world cultural heritage on all the international artists, who live and work in Berlin. Tango as an international communication tool in-between an urban reality. You are also invited just to watch and enjoy the scene as a spectator. Conclusion The antagonistic relationship between the contrasting identity constructions worked as an important driving force in the development of popular music in the GDR.
Both sides, the state and the fans, imbued the music with their own particular meanings. According to the will of the power structure, music should uphold the principle of social equality and contribute to the upbringing of a new kind of human being.
Music fans, however, strove for the opposite: they were looking for individuality and differentiation. In the musical trends of the West, they heard the sound of freedom.
In the GDR, popular music possessed a true political dimension. The state recognized its potential as a tool in the ideological clash between systems and implemented elaborate mechanisms to monitor and control the public.
The integration of popular music into the cultural and security policy apparatus involved an enormous potential for conflict. Breaking the rules was unavoidable for musicians and fans, who saw their basic interests being violated. Pressure generated resistance. These frictions remained characteristic of the GDR from its foundation to its collapse. They released an energy that, despite all the obstructions and prohibitions, yielded Tango - Various - Die Deutsche Schlagerparade Vol.
2 (Cassette) productive result. That continuous conflict between antagonistic identity patterns nourished a music culture that was of both high quality and relevance.
Acknowledgments Jessica Ring is gratefully acknowledged for translating this chapter. Bibliography Belair Jr. Dienstanweisung Nr. Frith, Simon.
Hager, Kurt. Juli Berlin DDR : Dietz. Hofmann, Heinz Peter. ABC der Tanzmusik. Honecker, Erich. Parteitag der Sozialistischen Einheitspartei Deutschlands. Parteitages der SED, vol. Lasch, Stefan. Melly, George. Middleton, Richard. London: Macmillan. Middleton, Richard, and Peter Manuel. Middleton, Richard et al. Pekacz, Jolanta. The Role of Rock in Political Transition. Pezold, Hans, and Rainer Herberger. Rackwitz, Werner. April in Berlin. Rauhut, Michael. Rock in der DDR bis New York and Oxford: Berghahn Books.
Berlin: LinksDruck. Mainz: Schott. The cultural, political and media circumstances in which they produced, released and performed their music changed almost overnight. At the same time, we can assume that the rigid, ideological principles underlying cultural and media policy also impelled young people and musicians in the GDR to do their part to bring down the Wall. Even though it was a weekday, the band in which I played saxophone was performing at a student club in Dresden, barely km from Berlin.
Just before midnight we arrived back in Berlin in our rented minibus. The streets of East Berlin were usually deserted at this time of night. When we wanted to turn north just before the Oberbaum Bridge, a border crossing that today connects the districts of Friedrichshain and Kreuzberg across the river Spree, we noticed that there were far more people out and about than usual.
They were running towards Oberbaum Bridge, towards the border crossing, towards Kreuzberg. Among them was our manager, at the time carrying a large bottle of champagne under his arm. The situation out on the street started to really irritate us. We quickly took the instruments to our rehearsal space and went to join the crowds of people who wanted to cross over to the west at the Bornholmerstrasse border crossing.
Within six months the Deutsche Mark had been introduced in the East and within another three months the two German states were reunified. This ushered in a period of drastic change for musicians from the former GDR. It marked the end of a period in which the state, which adopted a highly ambivalent attitude towards rules and their implications on culture, organized and controlled the destiny of this social realm.
This law Order No. Anyone who wanted to perform or play Tango - Various - Die Deutsche Schlagerparade Vol. 2 (Cassette) a youth club, at a festival, in front of students or at a cultural association needed a permit. The permit also indicated the fees to be paid to each individual musician and the band for each performance.
Thus, the social landscape was regulated by the state rather than market forces, which also meant that event organizers, such as a FDJ the official youth movement of the GDR club, had to pay musicians the amount Tango - Various - Die Deutsche Schlagerparade Vol.
2 (Cassette) on their permit. Given the importance of popular music to those living in the GDR, regardless of whether musicians or bands supported or resisted the state, musicians could count on finding a loyal audience.
Economically speaking, the production of records turned out to be another sore point. Not only was there a rigid system that decided who was allowed to produce a record and who was not, shortages vinyl had to be bought on international markets using foreign currency and CDs were not produced in the GDR also resulted, in the view of musicians and the general public, in an absurd policy for releasing and distributing records.
They reported directly to the Department of Agitation and Propaganda of the Central Committee of the SED and had to follow strict political guidelines. On the premises of the GDR radio broadcasting center a pop studio was opened and fitted with the latest equipment. At the same time, throughout the s more and more successful musicians set up their own studios and leased them to interested parties.
They either purchased equipment when touring in Western countries or got it through diplomats whose luggage was not checked at the border crossing. Drumstick shortages were just as much a part of everyday life as being on a waiting list for a new car and fuel quotas. You could only get digital equipment samplers, and so on if you were willing to pay the exorbitant exchange rates 1 German Mark was worth 5 to 8 East German Marks.
As a result, the black market flourished. Only very few musicians toured abroad either to the East or West. Not least, state organs, such as the Ministry of State Security the Stasialways kept an eye on them, because they were obligated only to themselves and their own business. Bands that did not have an official permit had to seek their audience in unofficial settings such as open youth centers organized by the evangelical church, galleries or privately organized meetingson which the Stasi kept an even more watchful eye.
The ubiquitous red tape surrounding permits, the neurotic fear of being arrested as a dissenter and the labyrinth of power ultimately created a system that was not only difficult for musicians to understand, but also one that they rejected and which became increasingly difficult to control. Musicians and their audiences, however, did not live on a secluded island. Mass media mainly radiorecord circles and the bands and artists invited to East Germany to perform in the late s introduced them to international trends and developments in pop music and youth culture.
Despite the virtual state monopoly on producing, distributing and presenting popular music, there had always been successful attempts to circumvent that structure. Throughout the s small, independent cassette labels emerged for punk and new wave music.
And even before that, concerts, performances or readings were available on Tango - Various - Die Deutsche Schlagerparade Vol. 2 (Cassette) film or tape cassettes. People published books with accompanying cassettes themselves and printed slightly fewer copies than were allowed according to printing regulations to get around the red tape of the responsible authorities.
The years towards the end of the s, the period just before the fall of the Wall, were characterized by considerable inconsistencies and contradictions. The state allowed broadcasting formats, events and records that would have been unthinkable ten years earlier. The state apparatus, and especially those responsible for the FDJ, started to realize that overly rigid measures and a uniform pop sound could neither meet the expectations of the young audience nor prevent the younger generation from disengaging and breaking away from the ideals of their parents and the idea of socialism.
It cooperated with international record companies and even allowed some East German bands to produce records in West Berlin recording studios.
The provocation elicited but little response. Neither side took the other seriously anymore. In the summer of countless citizens, especially young people, left the GDR and made it to Western Europe via Hungary. That was a significant moment for a lot of people. On November 4, the first officially approved mass demonstration which was not organized by the Party took place at Alexanderplatz in Berlin.
The final rally was organized by artists and staff from several East Berlin theatres. The record was released on the German market in the autumn of under the name ad acta Der Expander des Fortschritts Between September and November events in the GDR came thick and fast: starting with the Monday demonstrations in Leipzig, vigils in the Gethsemane Church in Prenzlauer Berg Berlinthe founding of the New Forum, arrests at demonstrations on the fortieth anniversary of the GDR on October 7, the mass demonstration on Alexanderplatz and finally the opening of the Wall the night of November 9.
Although it was not always peaceful there were no major riots, which many had feared. A lot also changed for and in the music scene. Bands were finally able to travel, bands from the West played in the cities of the GDR.
Anyone who could afford it started to replace their vinyl collection with CDs. New labels, magazines, publishers, clubs, and free radio stations started to emerge.
East Berliners worked in West Berlin radio stations and vice versa. Many musicians from the East not only lost their audience to international bands and artists, but also the hated yet at the same time comfortable and familiar infrastructure of the former production environment and distribution platforms.
At the same time, the entire music scene, from state supporters to punks and dissidents, suffered as a result of more and more revelations about many members, even the most dedicated, having worked as unofficial collaborators for the Stasi. Almost all print media outlets were bought by Western publishing groups, and radio and television stations adapted to the dual system public and private and underwent a thorough overhaul.
What marked the beginning of a new era for some, was the end of a once promising career for others. Inevitably, anyone who wanted to continue dedicating themselves to their music had to get to grips with the mechanisms of market structures and consistently develop appropriate marketing strategies.
Fixed fees were a thing of the past; competition, demand and supply ruled. In hindsight, only a few managed to make a name for themselves on the German market Die Prinzen and on the international market Rammstein and Paul van Dyk.
As for the system for the production and distribution of pop music, a substantial difference has materialized between urban centers and rural regions.
Interestingly, big festivals, such as Melt! The influence and role of rural areas is now largely insignificant. Things are different in the big cities, and the eyes of the world are on Berlin. Both halves of the city enjoyed a special status until the fall of the Wall, which ultimately also had an effect on the music cultures on both sides. In the old West Berlin housing was cheap, there were two universities as well as the University of the Arts, broadcasting corporations Sender Freies Berlin and the RIASthere was no military service and much more money was spent on cultural activities, since there was more of it available in the old West German states.
This was an ideal breeding ground for a lively subculture and independent scene, for cooperative galleries and even legendary recording studios. East Berlin was home to Tango - Various - Die Deutsche Schlagerparade Vol.
2 (Cassette) offices and agencies and the GDR radio broadcasting center; it had a university, several art colleges and many event venues and theatres.
The documentary includes interviews with techno DJs who were at the birth of this cultural movement, i. Berlin was a unique case: the special status of the old West Berlin met the equally special status of the old East Berlin. The land along the path of the former Berlin Wall which used to separate and divide the two halves of the city was peppered with old factories, department stores and power stations that had not been used since the end of the Second World War in or the construction of the Wall in Cultural activists from East and West started to occupy buildings that remained unclaimed and had no legal owners, and they were transformed into clubs modelled on the Warehouse in Chicago.
These clubs attracted hundreds of techno fans day after day, and not just at the weekend. These names refer to specific locations, their original function or the names of former owners. These famous clubs were not the only cultural hotspots in the city; there were countless other smaller clubs dotted around the city center especially in Prenzlauer Berg and Mitte, later in Friedrichshain and Kreuzberg. Techno impresarios occupied a house or a cellar, installed a lighting system, dragged in a few beer crates, came up with secretive methods of communication using answering machines and then the obligatory flyer, which was regularly used to advertise the increasingly popular club events.
There was no curfew, an abundance of untrained local politicians, and, above all, a lot of empty buildings. When Gemse, a social sciences and philosophy graduate, opened Delicious Doughnuts in with friends from the former GDR punk and new wave scene, they did not want to be pigeonholed into a specific genre just yet.
Back then, Gemse said, it was important to share sounds, ideas, and premises with other people. On weekends, Oxymoron turned into a real club from 11 p. Subversion, entrepreneurial flair, creative spirit and parallel worlds came together in techno and electronic music. It was precisely this mix that attracted so many of those involved in the scene, whether organizers, musicians or fans.
The subversiveness of this generation, however, expressed itself in a sense of community that seemed to be free of ideology: respect and freedom were the rules of the night. Clubs, fashion, lifestyle and electronic music became urban symbols of a transformation process that challenged the certainties of traditional social, cultural and economic relationships. Two of those programs are mentioned briefly below, because they explain why the fall of the Wall was the driving force behind the electro and techno scene in Germany and because the title of this chapter is borrowed from one of them.
That was one of our sayings at the time. He soon had his own truck and composed a new anthem every year. Nevertheless, it seems that its existence as well as its end is deeply rooted in the memory of those who lived through it. There have been many attempts in recent years to write about or cinematise the recent history of popular music in Germany, not least against the backdrop of the fall of the Berlin Wall and reunification. It is an impossible task to reconcile the memories and experiences of all those who lived through and participated in the music scenes in East and West.
This conflict of emotions and memories makes it difficult to achieve any real clarity, not least because many of the authors, including myself, are also contemporary witnesses and thus representatives of their own history.
Anything over that was exchanged at a rate ofand debts were also halved. Biermann subsequently enjoyed a lot of support from both the East and West. Accessed March 13, Binas, Susanne. Glotz, Peter. Die beschleunigte Gesellschaft. Oberender, Thomas. Order No. Beat in der Grauzone. Schalmei und Lederjacke. Rauhut, Birgit and Michael Rauhut. Schweinfurth, Reiner. Berlin: FAB. Vogt, Sabine. Berlin: Ch. Discography AG Geige. Deutsche Schallplatten GmbH, Berlincompact disc.
Originally released in as audio cassette. Der Expander des Fortschritts. Lambert, Rolf director. Though singing in English, the band was known to its worldwide fans as a German band, their global success paving the way for a new generation of internationally successful bands and music business actors within the German heavy metal scene. Without them, it would be hard to imagine later bands like Rammstein attaining such international success. This is why no book on this topic today can do without Rammstein, as we claimed in the introduction.
In his account on music from the s Ulrich Adelt aptly demonstrates that Krautrock was not a homogeneous style. The label was one ascribed from outside and did not necessarily reflect the way the bands viewed themselves. As a pioneering metal band from Germany, the Scorpions with their English lyrics provided a model for younger metal bands. Seeing themselves as part of a worldwide metal scene, these bands used English lyrics to build an international fan base that also helped to raise their reputation at home.
At the same time some quite literally embodied Germany as a place of origin in part through singing involuntarily with German accents and in germanized English.
Their chapter is a dialogue between two scholars and popular music aficionados who both embody different links to German popular music. Discography Scorpions. Wind Of Change. A more specific analysis of the Krautrock subgenre kosmische Musik will contrast alternative new age spirituality and cosmic consciousness with the continued foreign perception of the music as essentially German.
Hybridity can function as a form of resistance but does not necessarily entail oppositional politics. Hybridity and deterritorialization are the main strategies in Krautrock that serve to deconstruct essentialist and fixed notions of what it means to be German. They took place from September 25 to September 29,in the West German city of Essen, part of the industrial Ruhrgebiet. Historically, the term itself was only one among many describing West German popular music from the s.
The West German music press initially used Krautrock as a term to dismiss specific artists. The positive spin on the term Krautrock originated with the British music press. The influence of music traditionally perceived as German, such as the compositions of Bach, Beethoven, and Brahms, on what would evolve around as Krautrock is negligible. Krautrock also stood in stark opposition to popular forms like Volksmusik or Schlager. Krautrock was influenced by African American music but also involved the conscious departure from blues scales.
With the music scene in West Germany flourishing in the s, it became increasingly harder to generalize about Krautrock. Although many groups released albums on small labels like Ohr, Pilz, and Brain, moved from the city to rural communes, and employed electronic instruments, none of these characteristics applied to all Krautrockers.
These bands included the internationally successful Scorpions, Nektar, and Triumvirat. In contrast to Can, Kraftwerk deliberately used German titles for their songs and sang in German.
Michael Rother and Klaus Dinger, the two members of the group, had begun their careers as part of Kraftwerk. Communal living was another strategy by Krautrock bands to break out of hierarchical and nationalist structures. Communes, of course, were not unique to Germany in the s and arguably had a more significant history in North America than in Europe. Yet the way communal living was applied to the specific historical circumstances in West Germany after World War II is apparent in the works of some of the most recognized Krautrock groups.
It served as a deterritorializing mechanism in the context of Americanization and globalization by shifting attention to the specific local community of the commune as an alternative to broader national or global society. Musically, this was reflected in experimentation making way for more conventional rock fare. Another communal band, Faust, was rejected both by critics and audiences in Germany but became quite successful in Great Britain and other European countries.
Their eclectic politics included Marxism, anarchism, Christianity, and rock star hedonism. Integral to this new consciousness were the consumption of psychedelic drugs and the invention of new sounds, in particular through the employment of the synthesizer. The group was thus introduced as a countercultural force drawing on alternative spiritualities in a transnational context.
The song referenced an anvil as both a bone in the middle ear that produces sound as well as the rhythmic quality associated with the ancient tool. While grounded in kosmische Musik, his music marked a significant turn toward a rediscovered sense of German national identity. Yet embracing this spirituality as the main motivation behind their music eventually involved abandoning the synthesizer, the instrument that had been the driving force behind kosmische Musik.
While the first two albums relied on the Moog synthesizer, Hosianna Mantra was entirely acoustic and, already in the title, connected Eastern and Western religiosity. In order to destabilize German national identity after World War II, many groups turned to strategies like hybridity, cosmopolitanism, and communal living.
Beginning with the Essen Song Days inKrautrock blossomed until circabut one could also argue that it lasted well into the s.
Bibliography Adelt, Ulrich. Krautrock: German Music in the Seventies. Cope, Julian. London: Head Heritage. Dedekind, Henning. Kraftwerk: I Am a Robot. Hoffmann, Raoul. Frankfurt: Ullstein. Jugendamt der Stadt Essen, ed. Kotsopoulos, Nikos. Krautrock: Cosmic Rock and its Legacy. Littlejohn, John, ed. Popular Music and Society Patterson, Archie.
Eurock: European Rock and the Second Culture. Portland, OR: Eurock Publications. Schmidt, Hildegard, and Wolf Kampmann, ed. Can Box Book. Siegfried, Detlef.
Simmeth, Alexander. Krautrock transnational. Stubbs, David. Stump, Paul. Wembley: SAF. Trenkler, Winfried. Wagner, Christoph. Wilson, Andy. Psychedelic Underground. Live in London. United Artists. Ash Ra Tempel. New Age of Earth. Tago Mago. Faust IV. The Man Machine. Popol Vuh. Hosianna Mantra. Schulze, Klaus. Tangerine Dream. Ton Steine Scherben. David Volksmund. Various Artists. Filmography Aguirre, the Wrath of God.
Directed by Werner Herzog. Filmverlag der Autoren. A good example is Wacken Open Air, a festival sincewhich each year attracts 85, metal fans and over bands from around the globe.
Yet despite the huge popularity of metal music, German metal is widely ignored by national media and rarely present in music charts. This chapter analyzes the challenges German power metal bands faced to get acknowledged by their home scene and abroad. Although West Germany had been an important market for international rock music since the s, German rock evolved slowly. Adequate musical instruments, recording studios and specialist producers for rock music were hard to get hold of.
Heavy metal spread in the Western hemisphere during the first half of the s. While previously only records by a few internationally famous metal bands such as Iron Maiden England and the Scorpions Germany were distributed, these new labels made British and American metal imports widely available in Germany.
More importantly, they started signing German bands on a large scale. Even the Scorpions and Accept had only become widely accepted in Germany after they achieved international acclaim. This fact prompted many German acts to focus on international metal markets because being acknowledged internationally seemed to be a way to stick out of the mass of bands in Germany. Maybe there is not such a performer. In Aprilit happened that I was sitting next to Eddie Constantine.
He asked me what I'm doing at the moment. Out of sheer embarrassment I told him about my project. He immediately caught fire: "I'll make that free for you! But he did not give up and lured with an image: A guy like Buster Keaton he wanted to embody. As I pushed my project aside to see what else might be possible with him.
In the screen test, he came to meet my way of direct shooting. So I thought we can risk it. Then everything turned out completely different. As the gobermental movie sponsorship accepted, he no longer wanted to film without a script and a fee had to be paid. As material for the script we took his life. In this a tribunal him is giving the chance to try everything again.
His love affair with Maya Faber-Jansen was included. Clarisa Aragon. Website Visit our website Website Visit our website. Read times Last modified on Friday, 01 February Berlin Opera. More in this category:. Login now to post comments. Keep me in the loop.
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