Harmattan - Mich Gerber - Tales Of The Wind (CD, Album)
Quartet De Corda Num. Piano Sonata No. DZ Score; 30 cm. Marlene's Rag : For Solo Guitar. Phantasie, Op. EG Set Of 2 Scores; 31 cm.
Tokyo: Zen-On Music Co. Sheherazade Alive : For Two Pianos NM Spiral; Score; 36x26 cm. EG Score; 37x26 cm. Icefield Sonnets : For String Quartet. Klang : For 2 Pianos and Percussion. Wild Ambrosia : For Violin and Piano. Sonate H-Moll, Op. Bonn: J. Trio A MollOp. Kabalevsky, Dmitri, Pieces For Children, Op. Margaret Otwell and Richard Walters. Two Lyrics : For Solo Cello Moody Tango : For String Quartet Percussion Symphony No. Masquerade Suite, Op. Bluegrass Rondo : For Percussion Ensemble.
Rejoice : For Percussion Ensemble. Lumen : For Unaccompanied Mixed Choir Magma : For Solo Guitar. Tangolibre : For 4 Guitars. Sargeant, Jr. Valse Fantastique H-Moll, Op. More Recreations : For Two Pianos Notes : For Cello Solo Sinfonietta, Op. Tote Stadt, Op. PWM Score; 30 cm. EG Score; 31 cm. Poetics No. Sonata Jupiter : For Guitar Soundspells No. Dialogue : Pour Deux Violoncelles BE10F Score; 28 cm. Rent : Broadway Singer's Edition. Folksongs : For Piccolo, Harp and Percussion Gye Nyame : For Chamber Orchestra Los Angeles: Fatrock Music Score; 28 cm.
Lennon, John, Without Fanfare : For Winds and Percussion Fantasie Ricercare : For Organ. Little Suite : For Piano. SIK Spiral; Score; 30x21 cm. Sonatina No. Gobi Canticle : For Violin and Viola Gobi Gloria : For String Quartet Lakescape : For Soprano, Piano and Percussion Verge : For 18 Solo Strings Claudio Bravin and Francesco Zorzini.
Liebermann, Lowell, Concerto, Op. Nocturne, Op. Revelry, Op. Remembering Schumann : For Violoncello and Piano Allegro Concertante : For Violin and Piano Goldranken : For Piano London: Chester Music Lylloff, Bent, Tricky Biscuits : For Percussion.
Paris: Billaudot Surexposition : Pour Basson. Paris: Billaudot Maccombie, Bruce, Lyric Variations : For Solo Guitar Tango Amoroso : For Guitar Trio.
For Sonny : For String Quartet. Piano Concerto No. Two Movements : For Wind Quintet. Cut : For String Quartet Mu : For Violin Or Viola Rotations : For Cello and Piano Italo Vescovo. Martin, Robert, Woodwind Quartet No. Woodwind Quartet No. Light and Shadows : For Solo Clarinet. C Choral Octavo; 27 cm. GE Full Score; 30 cm. Hurtling Through Space Trio No. Violin Concerto - reduction For Violin and Piano. Mathias, William, Jeffrey Sultanof and Rob Duboff. NOV Score; 31 cm. OCR Score; 30 cm.
Mercer, Johnny, Johnny Mercer. Messieri, Massimiliano, String Quartet No. Tsvetayeva : For Mezzo Soprano and Piano. Meulemans, Arthur, Meyer, Krzysztof, Konzert, Op. Hamburg: Sikorski Album), Nikolai, Quatuor A Cordes No.
Kind Of Green : For Guitar Villa 31 : For Guitar CH Score; 31 cm. Second Rhapsody : For Orchestra. Manfred : Ballet Per A Orquestra. SZ Score; 32x23 cm. TR Full Score; 34 cm. Andersen : For Sang Og Klaver. JM5 Score; 31 cm. Trio, Op. London: St. Stride : For String Quartet Three Etudes : For Viola Sonate De Concert No.
Suite, Op. Whatever : For Clarinet and Piano. Rush Hour : For Jazz Ensemble. Set Of 4 Parts; 36 cm. New York: Carl Fischer Score; 30 cm.
Copenhagen: Wilhelm Hansen Nordgren, Pehr, Epilogue, Op. Helsinki: Hellasedition Nordheim, Arne, Suite : Per Violoncello Solo WH Spiral; Score; 42x30 cm. Ferskenblomst Fjernostlig Blues : For Piano. Men Tredie Gang! Jakob Kullberg and Szymon Krzeszowiec. To Mediterrane Meditationer : For Piano PMS Score; 30 cm. Spiral; Full Score; 43 cm. Rhapsody : For Alto Saxohone - Piano reduction. FUE Score; 30 cm. NOV Score; 30 cm.
Puzzle-Tocas : For Wind Quintet Swirling Modes : For 4 Guitars. Violin Sonata No. Quartet Nr. Tzolkin : For Solo Percussion PAR28 Spiral; Score; 28x22 cm. Sextet : For Instrumental Sextet Sonata : For Bassoon and Piano Looney Tunes : For Chamber Ensemble PV Vocal Score; 28 cm.
Organ Book, Vol. Paul: Paulus Publications Score; 30 cm. Timepiece : For Jazz Soloists and Orchestra. Distorsiones : Para Dos Tubas Pocket Quartet No. Psicodelia : Para Piano Concerto No. Fiesta : For 2 Guitars. Reggae Fusion : For 4 Guitars.
Senteurs Caraibes : For Flute and Guitar. Pinkham, Daniel, Boston: E. Pizzetti, Ildebrando, Firenze: A. Imaginary Landscape : For Piano 4-Hands Essays 1, 2 and 3 : For String Quartet Violin Concerto No. PE Full Score; 31 cm. PES Score; 31 cm. Litaniae Alle Cinque : For Piano Mainz: Schott Score; 30 cm. Vier Lieder, Op. Steven Juliani. EP Score; 28 cm. Cummings : For Mezzosoprano and Piano. Divertimento, Op. Cantus Borealis : For Wind Quintet.
Phases : For Woodwind Quintet Daphnis Et Chloe - Suite No. Gaspard De la Nuit, No. ZN Score; 30 cm. Sonate : Pour Violon Et Piano. Sonatine : Pour le Piano. LMM Score; 30 cm. DF10, Score; 34 cm. Sensemaya : For Orchestra. Riddle, Nelson, Streichquartett Riisager, Knudage, Wellington: Massey Univ. Cinderella On Broadway. Nebulous Toccata : For Guitar Solo Semiosis : For Piano Solo C Spiral; Score; 36 cm.
B Spiral; Full Score; 42 cm. Boundless Dance : For Vibraphone and Piano. Roikjer, Kjell, Roldan, Amadeo, Christus Factus Est : Pour Orgue Flute Concerto Oboe Concerto.
Odna Zhizn : For Orchestra Neun Skizzen, Op. EC Score; 30 cm. SIK Score; 30 cm. Pennywhistlers : For Alto Recorder Luonnon Kasvot : For Voice and Piano Solar : For Ensemble Sarfu keen to market Bok merchandise. Business Day, 16 January: Louw, G. The measurement and dimensionality of brand associations. Moodie, G. Boot-camp scandal hits rugby in the pants. Sunday Times Business Times, Nov: Cross-cultural marketing. Sayre, D. Escalating down to business. Sports marketing: a strategic perspective.
Smith, C. Fifth team for South Africa in Super Sheperd, G. Building brand relationships with employees and customers — living the promise. Steyn, A. Modern statistics in practice. Pretoria: Van Schaik. Tarik, E. Retrieved 24 October Van der Berg, C. Rugby gets rich. Sunday Times Business Times, 3 March: 1. Bok rugby logo shows that money is the real score. Sunday Times Business Times, April: Vice, T.
The colours of money. Date retrieved 29 October Walker, D. Building brand equity through advertising. Date retrieved 24 June SA sports: no pain, no gain. Financial Mail, Feb: Wood, L. Brand and brand equity: definition and management. Management Decision, 38 9 : Date retrieved 24 October Date retrieved 15 May SA Rugby: Super Date retrieved 9 April Winning the League Cups and European Championship are re- garded as the ultimate achievement by many clubs.
Creating the winning team is at the heart of their strategy. This view of creating internal capabilities is also shared by the recent work in the area of strategic management and economic theory. They believe developing hard to imitate competencies and capabilities provide unique resource—driven strategy and should be the heart of strategy formulation. This paper discusses the success factors of leading Premiership clubs and examines whether RBV can explain the success of premiership football clubs in the UK.
The author concludes the paper with future research suggestions. The resources are the source of economic rents and bundling of the resources are referred to as capabilities Amit and Schoemaker, ; Wernerfelt, When employing these resources, a firm achieves competitive advantage, as they are unique to the individual firms Prahalad and Hamel, ; Prahalad and Hamel, This implies that the firms are being heterogeneous in their resources. RBV emphasizes strategic choice; challenge the manage- ment ability in identifying, developing strategic assets and dynamic capabilities to create value in order to maximize returns Penrose, ; Barney, The primary contribution of the RBV of the firm is the theory of Competitive advantage.
A firm has a sustain- ned competitive advantage when core resources and capabilities are used to im- plement a value, and when current or potential competitors are not simulta- neously implementing them; also when other firms are unable to imitate this strategy Barney, Gunther, et.
Unanticipated changes in the eco- nomic structure of an industry may make what was, at one time, a source of advantage, may be no longer valuable for a firm. Barneyproposes that to gain sustainable advantage resources must be of value, rare, difficult to copy and must be non-substitutable. According to Kayin any given market more than one firm can have a competitive advantage and firm A can have an advantage over firm B but firm B can also have an advantage over firm C.
In the UK premiership clubs on the pitch success is not always followed by the financial success. Chelsea won both Carling club and Premier League. Arsenal won the FA Cup. Liverpool won the Cham- pions League. This demonstrates the complexities when discussing competitive advantage in relation to premiership football clubs.
The success factors cannot only be judged under the prefix of how many trophies were won or financial gains. Underlining success factors must be investigated under the financial success as well as on the pitch per- formances. In terms of measuring competitive advantage, in football, the results of competition outcomes are measurable not just in financial terms, but in terms of the success on the pitch, through games won and lost, league positions ac- hieved and trophies won Szymanski, This is boasted by sell out average match attendance of 67, spectators a new premiership record and their commercial activities around 75 million global fan base Deloitte, Their success is mainly due to their innovative commercial strategies, in particular marketing, which has contributed enormously.
Premiership Clubs derived reve- nue from match day, broadcast and commercial sources. Match of the day income is derived from gate receipts, season tickets and memberships. Broad- cast income includes both domestic and international income deriving from radio and television. Commercial incomes include sponsorship, conference, catering and merchandising Deloitte, Fixed asset, such as a stadium, can only provide them with competitive advantage if the clubs exploit all revenue streams available to them.
Increasing stadium capacity enables football clubs to segment and target the market acco- rding to different needs of the fans and corporate clients.
Most clubs have hos- pitality boxes on the terraces, conference centres, restaurants etc. They help clubs to tailor made offers to different types of fans as well as to attract new supporters. Table 2. They have a high earning London fan base and attract more corporate clients. Big capacity stadiums with big crowds do not guarantee big revenues.
It is the ability of yield management, their market sensing and customer linking capabilities that generate income. Commercial Revenues Commercial revenue in football clubs covers a variety of incomes. Retail and sponsorship revenues are the main key income streams. Man- chester United sold 3. They have stores in South East Asia including Ma- laysia and Singapore, and host websites in English and Mandarin to promote their merchandise Deloitte, All the clubs introduce new products such as team-related merchandise, financial services, and other services to increase revenue.
The competitive advantage only lies with the club that is closest to its fans. Top four clubs attract large audiences for Championships and league matches, hence their ability to attract blue chip global corporate sponsors. In sports even if two clubs have the same sponsor, the contracts are unique. Manchester United and Arsenal both had the same football kit sponsor Nike. But Manchester United clearly has the competitive advantage with Nike; as it has a year contract starting from 1st of August The structure of the deal was unique in football when it was signed, and has now been followed by other leading European clubs.
The sponsorship can only be an advantage if it can help to build the brand, image, enhance the perception of the club amongst all its publics and generate revenue. Broadcast Revenues Unlike any other industry football clubs are paid by the broadcasters. Pay- TV particularly needs Premiership football to develop and maintain a strong and sustainable subscriber base.
Participating in Champions League guarantees minimum number of matches and generates large sums of revenue. More matches means increase in revenue. Clubs regard successful do- mestic season as vital, in participating in Champions League. With global audi- ences, broadcast revenue and other commercial revenue with global brand sponsors, participating in the Champions League has the potential to generate significant sums of revenue.
This is the main reason why on the pitch success is so vital. On the Pitch Success As Clubs on the pitch performance improves, revenues increase as a result of attendance, increased sponsorship, merchandising and TV income Szy- manski, Sustainable success over time on the pitch is the biggest challenge that all premiership clubs face. Better players win matches. Creating winning teams means clubs need to either purchase the players in the open market spending millions or develop youth talent.
Since Russian billionaire Roman Abramovich took the ownership of Chelsea, he had invested millions to create the winning team including hi- ring a more dynamic manager from Portugal, Jose Mourinho.
The top four clubs in the UK have very successful team managers and they own many of the best players. No one club dominates the field. How do clubs achieve sustainable advantage on the pitch? Hunt and Morgancharacterise the market orient- tation as an organisational atmosphere or culture which strives to create supe- rior value for its customers, more effectively and efficiently than its com- petitors, thus improving its market performance Naver and Slater ; Kohli and Jaworski ; Jaworski and Kohli Day argues that the most distinctive features of the market-driven organisations are their market sensing and customer linking capabilities.
He asserts that the market-orientated com- panies have in place processes for collecting market intelligence about custom- mers and integrating them with strategic decision making processes. Market orientation is about articulating and internally disseminating the information and responding by changing corporate culture and managerial behaviour with respect to this intelligence Hunt and Morgan, ; Kohli and Jaworski ; Naver and Slater It is suggested that an effective marketing orientation is difficult to imitate as it is achieved through idiosyncratic management that is difficult to both identify and copy by the competitors thus creating a barrier to imitation Day, ; Hunt and Morgan, ; Lippman and Rumelt, ; Mahoney and Pandian, ; Oktemgil et al, Through experience and learning by doing accumulate, skills-based and tacit capabilities, which are dif- ficult to imitate by the competitors Polanyi, This creates complexity as a result of using many interrelated tacit capabilities.
Competitors find them dif- ficult to identify Peterraf, ; Lippman and Rumlet, Specificity is di- recting particular capabilities to specific aspects of market orientation. Man- chester United sells most merchandise through successful retail operations. The main objective of retailing is to fulfil customer demand for its products at dif- ferent geographical locations at profit.
Each store must be planned carefully in order to maximise sales and profitability requiring synchronising the financial plans, product plans, store plans, key items plans and assortment plans to serve the need of the customer Vinod, This requires managing a complex supply chain from manufacturer through the various touch points to the end customer. In retailing, sales volumes, and asset efficiency are influencing fac- tors of profitability.
This means systematically managing consumer data and market intelligence in making merchandising decisions. These are specialist marketing skills requiring customer insights and matching their needs with products and services for customer satisfaction and loyalty, hence growth in revenues and profitability. Chelsea generates most income per spectator as a result of their service capability. The service is often embedded in the skills of the individual per- sonnel.
A market orientated firm with a long term marketing strategic per- spective demands a unique set of behaviour and attitude from employees and certain policies to produce a unique set of responses from employees.
Rou- tines are a product of the organization as an entire system Teece, and Winter, ; Barney, a ; they reside in the corporate culture and network of employee relations Collis, Developing and maintaining long-term cus- tomer relationships are such a capability.
These are hard to identify and copy by the competitors Greenley, Hooley and Saunders Non-transferability of market orientation is evident as it is embedded in corporate culture, the values and the attitudes of management, and their behaviour Chi, ; Pete- raf, Market orientation is most likely to be non tradable and have little external value, as tacit market orientation capabilities are acquired. The team- based skills may be less effective in a different corporate culture Chi, ; Peteraf, In the case of Manchester United and Chelsea it can be argued that both clubs are market orientated clubs, yet their capabilities differ as they have competitive advantage over different income streams, merchandise retai- ling and match of the day income per spectator respectively.
The literature de- monstrates market orientation is in deed a strategic resource that is valuable, rare immobileand imperfectly imitable unique and socially complex Bar- ney, Brand The Clubs are also global brands with a global fan base.
Sports fans attach meanings to the names and logos of their favourite teams by virtue Gladden and Milne, Keller suggests brand with equity, experience higher levels of loyalty. Brand loyalty is important to sports teams for two broad reasons. As a result of brand loyalty, premium prices can be cha- rged Aaker, Brand loyalty creates opportunities for product extensions beyond the core product Aaker, Brand loyalty also ensures high following through the broadcast media.
Given consistent high ratings, football clubs also generate very high incomes from TV rights. The broadcasters are also able to charge advertisers of teams with high loyal following premiums for advertising time. Clubs generate revenue as a result of their sustainability during different tournaments. Development of a strong and sustainable subscriber base for Pay- TV broadcasters can also be lucrative. The brand is a unique resource with its own image and personality.
It is valuable, non substitutable and hard to imitate. Networks In football the types of commercial relationships are mostly partnerships. They are different and they have a number of levels, ranging in terms of prestige, finance and mutual benefits. Strategic networks in which the firms are embedded may influence performances of firms Dyer and Nobeoka, Clubs have to develop and maintain networks with agents to buy the best players and to transfer players at a profitmanufactures to make sure high quality merchandise are produceddistributors to ensure worldwide fan base accessibility to merchandisepublishers to produce high quality match of the day programmes, club brochures, promotional literature etclicensees to develop and market products world-wideand many differ- rent suppliers including travel companies organizing package holidays atta- ched to key matchescaterers to run and efficient and good quality food spe- cially for hospitality clientsand web designers to ensure the web site is attar- ctive and easier to use, to sell directly via internet, to collect data of the web savvy supporters etc.
In partnerships it is evident that these network relationships and the negotiation skills form unique resources. These strategic networks are com- posed of inter-organizational ties that are enduring and are based on factors such as trust and reputation. They may be rare and difficult for rivals to replicate Srivastava et.
Creating and Managing the Winning Teams The football managers have distinctive capabilities. They derived from their inner capabilities such as their own experience, know-how, ability to co- ach, leadership, team building, motivating the team and determination to win.
These are unique individual characteristics that cannot be copied by others. The challenge is to find the non imitable winning formula over time. Still the team manager and the team can be regarded as a strategic resource, as both Barney and Gunther et al. Increased mobility of this key resource questions, whether the players and managers are a key resource? A key resource is depending on inability to duplicate a resource by the competitors Barney, In theory any clubs with the financial muscle are able to buy them.
Besides the increased mobility, only one club can benefit from their performance at any given period and others do not have the access to such aresource. Peter Kenyon was credited for Manchester United successful com- mercial operations, until Chelsea recruited him and became the chief executive and joined the Board of Directors.
But both clubs are not able to benefit from his services simultaneously. Then, such personnel can be regarded as a stra- tegic resource during a particular period of time. It is evident that no singular club has both financial and on the pitch success simultaneously.
This means creating and safeguarding internal resources and capabilities. In RBV not all resources are of equal importance or posses the potential to be a source of competitive advantage Fahy, Resource is only valuable if it either directly adds value to its products and services, or if that resource contributes to build a unique competence or capabilities that is valued by the customer.
A firm requires to obtain new resources and combine them with, or reconfigure, resources it already possesses to develop new competitive advantage through the pursuit of new initiatives by adding new products, markets and technologies to its current repertoire, and explore new markets, with a more attractive offering than competitors.
There are many organizations that are superior in their capabilities and resources, yet their products have become failures despite their internal strengths. For example, Euro Disney failed to create value in Europe. Football clubs need to assess which internal strengths actually matter in the market place. Also some resources and capabilities may only give competitive ad- vantage at a certain period of time, and later may be invalidated by higher- order capabilities.
If such strategy is to be meaningful more future research is required. For Premiership clubs it is getting harder and harder to dominate financial and on the pitch success. Clubs need to be able to identify and measure advantage creating resources and their contribution on performance. The measurement of how market orientated each club is can identify gaps that hinder performance potential. Does league position of clubs affect brand equity?
Despite league position, can premiership clubs be positioned creating uniqueness? Amit, R. Barney, J. Chi, T.
Collis, D. JResearch note: how valuable are organizational capabilities, Strategic Management Journal, Vol. Day, G. S,The capabilities of market-driven organisations, Journal of Marketing, Vol.
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Business Strategy Review, Vol. Teece, D. J and Winter, S. The sponsorship fee which is paid by a sponsor to these kinds of organizations reaches millions of dollars. Argan, Besides, non-sponsor and the direct competitor firms engage in pre- planned marketing activities.
These kinds of marketing activities are known as ambush marketing. The aim of the ambush marketing is to gain some benefits by confusing the minds of the consumers. These sports organi- zations and similar ones took some anti-ambush marketing decisions to protect their organizations or sports activities from these kinds of guerilla attacks.
However, at the same time the sponsor firms should not forget the point that to block these kinds of strategies they will have to take legal sanctions. There are always some competitors who want to fill the gaps created by the negligence of the sponsors Argan, Another important subject is the impact of the ambush marketing. Predictably, event owners and official sponsors have regarded it as immoral because it threatens their ability to sell events or recoup the investments made Payne, ; Crow and Hoek, Paralleling the growth in sponsorship has been an increase in the practice of ambush marketing Shani and Sandler, ; Meenaghan, b.
Ambush marketing, sometimes referred to as parasitic marketing, has been broadly defined as "the unauthorised asso- ciation of a business or organisation with the marketing of a particular event - gaining benefit for the marketing right or licensing fee applicable in order to be associated with an event, such as a sporting event. Ambush marketing, consists, in the sports context, of the unauthorized association by businesses of their names, brands, products, or services with a sport event or competition through any one or more of a wide range of marke- ting activities Townley et al.
Ambush marketing occurs when non-sponsors attempt to gain benefits available only to official sponsors Meenaghan ; a. Ambush marke- ting occurs when a company associates itself with an event, such as the Olympics or the Football World Cup or an aspect of it, such as a particular sport or teamwithout putting up the money needed to become an official sponsor Davidson and McDonald, Nowadays, the sheer size of major international events such as the Oly- mpics or Formula 1 Grand Prix simply make this unfeasible — without spon- sors, the event collapses.
It has reached the point where some corporations now eschew almost all sponsorship invitations. Whereas once ambush marketing consisted merely of Olympic-themed advertisements or promotions, it now includes more insidious forms of advertising, such as corporate logos on athletes' bodies Davidson and McDonald, Ambush Marketing Strategies Meenaghan identified five commonly employed ambush marketing strategies Crow and Hoek, The benefits of this approach are obvious when one considers that the media audience for most events is much larger than the on-site audience Doust, The Fuji versus Kodak case in the Los Angeles Olympics is perhabs the most celebrated legal ambush.
Track team Meenaghan, Sponsor subcategories within the event and exploit this investment aggressively: The ambusher sponsors a lesser element associated with an event of major public interest, and exploits this association through major promotional activity Doust, This is a widespride and often very cost-effective method of association with an event of major public interest.
In the case of FIFA World Cup, while the official sponsor is sponsoring the whole event an ambusher sponsors some lesser category such as a fede- ration, team or athletes Kendal and Curthoys, for a lower price.
A Corporation may resort to large-scale promotional campaigns directly at the venue of the event itself or times to coincide with the event.
By using point-of purchase displays, billboards, banners, local media, and other attention-getting tactics, com- panies attempt to attract consumer awareness around the event itself Lyberger and McCarthy, The legality and ethical basis of this approach depends on the specific strategy, which may include themed advertising Meenaghan, Other ambushing strategies: Many ambushers have adopted highly creative and inventive strategies to suggest involvement with events: using photo- graphs of recognisable places or implants, tennis racket etc.
No one of these methods has been entirely successful. However, the legislative and contractual measures taken by the Australian government for the Sydney Games stand out as perhaps the most successful to date Davidson and McDonald, Ambush marketing prevention efforts are being designed to ensure that no entity creates a false or unauthorised association with Beijing Mendel and Yijun, Based on experience, the IOC has instituted a series of preventative measures Payne, In the other words, cumulative learning about ambushers has taught both event owners and sponsors many important lessons about counter actions Meenaghan, According to Meenaghan several strategies to counter ambushing can be identified: 1.
Pressurize events owners to protect their events. Legal framework of sport event must be drawn. Dissatisfied or disappointed sponsors of sport events, as victims of ambush marketing can demand protection from event owners for the rights they have. Link event and broadcast sponsorship. Many times, the event and broadcast sponsors are different organizations. Where the event is broadcast on com- mercial television, a rival company may be able to buy spots during a com- mercial break or to make sponsorship to the event.
Ambushers do sponsor the broadcast of event and create more awareness than official sponsors. If there are links between event and broadcast sponsorship, ambushers cant find a platform to advertise. The event organisers may avoid such situations by ensuring that all rights of advertising time or official sponsorship during the event are given to the official sponsors.
Anticipate potential competitive promotions. If there are spaces in sport events, many competitors of the sponsors can come into action with many marketing or promotion strategies. Official sponsors should use their spon- sorship rights to the last. Experienced sponsors have learned to anticipate competitive promotions. Exploit the sponsorship rights secured. Many inexperienced sponsors leave themselves open to having the benefits of their sponsorship program sub- stantially diluted either by ambushers or even by official cosponsors of an event.
Resort to legal action. If the four counter ambushing strategies can not be effective, the official sponsors of events or teams resort to legal actions.
Many official sponsors or event organisers apply to the courts for unautho- rised use event rights. Coca-Cola was not an official sponsor of Turkish National Football Team, but it associated with the team by colors red and white and athletes. In reality, legal action may not always be effective. This may be due to variations in legislation between countries, particularly in the difficult area of copyright, trademarks, and goodwill infringement Meenaghan, Methodology Research Design A face to face survey method was used for this research.
This study is descriptive and explanatory one. While designing the research, available strate- gies for developing scale items about ambush marketing and counter ambush marketing were used. In this context, 7 scale items for ambush marketing strategies and 7 scale items for counter ambush marketing strategies were used.
The other parts of the questionnaire were made up from the following variables; sponsors and non-sponsors awareness, viewing frequencies of the competitions and sports news and demographics. The dependent variables in this study were ambush marketing strategies, counter strategies of ambush marketing, awareness of sponsors and awareness of ambush marketing.
The independent variables in this study were demographic variables, viewing frequencies of the competitions and sports news. Sample The sample in this study consisted of students at Anadolu University in Turkey. Anadolu University is a state university, which was founded in Anadolu University is the only university in Turkey that provides an open education system. Anadolu University houses 12 faculties, 3 faculties of dis- tance education, 6 collegiate schools, 1 State Conservatory, 4 vocational schools, 9 institutes 4 graduate schools, 5 institutes and 19 research centers.
The figures for students in formal education are undergraduate The number of students in the open education system is almost This research was conducted with students in formal education in Anadolu University. The selected students were undergraduates. Systematic random sampling method was used in the research design and the sample was selected to represent all the teaching units faculties, schools, vocational schools, and State Conservatory in Anadolu University.
There were 9 faculties students3 collegiate schools students3 vocational schools students and 1 state conservatory 63 students in the sample. Data collection was conducted between February 1, and May 28, In order to complete the questionnaire, five interviewers students in marketing research course were assigned to 16 units faculties, collegiate schools, vocational schools and conservatory in the university. Each researcher approached the students, introduced himself and asked to speak with students.
The researchers explained the purpose of the study and admi- nistered questionnaires to those who agreed to participate. Participation was voluntary. The time to explain the study and complete the questionnaire was approximately 15 minutes. A total of questionnaires were distributed, but questionnaires, a return rate of Procedure and Instrumentation The questionnaire contained four sections. First section was about perce- ptions and attitudes of ambush marketing strategies and strategies of counter ambushing.
The second section focused on awareness of Turkish National Football Team sponsors. The last section of the questionnaire consisted of demographics and other respondent variables. Analysis of the Data Descriptive statistics were calculated to assess overall responses to the survey items. The mean scores and standard deviations were calculated with SPSS 12 on all sub-scales of ambush marketing strategies and strategies to counter ambushing.
For the demographic variables, frequencies were calcu- lated. Chi-Square statistics nonparametric or nominal data were then used to identify any significant relationship differences by gender, age, income, and some items in ambush marketing strategies and strategies to counter ambu- shing. To identify between groups, post hoc test was used. Results Sample Characteristics Respondents consisted of males The respondents ranged in age from 17 years to 28 years.
Most of the respon- dents were in The respondents had average monthly expenses million The respondents contained students of faculties Lastly, the respondents consisted of 49 preparatory students 4. As an information source about sponsors, television Comparisions of Sponsorship and Ambush Awarness Ambush marketing can be effective only if a sufficient number of con- sumers do not know enough about the rights of official sponsors Sandler and Shani, For this reason, knowledge and awareness of official sponsors are important variables for effectiveness.
The respondents In the unaided recall study of the sponsors of the Turkish National Football Team; Turkcell was in the first place with Shell was in the last place with the percentage of 1. Coca-Cola which carried out intense advertising camp- aigns and promotions during FIFA World Cup, was the top ambusher, with the percentage of Besides, there was a significant difference between recognition of the sponsors of Turkey National Football Team and gender. Men with the percent- age of There was a signi- ficant difference between sponsorship awareness and the frequency of watch- ing sports news.
The respondents who watched the sports news every night Many respondents There was a significant difference between the recognition of the non-sponsor firms acting as sponsor firms ambush aware- ness and gender. The awareness level of the men Finally, the variable of ambush awareness showed significant differences with the frequency of the watching sports news on television. According to the ambush marketing strategies, the perception of the firms that distribute free products related to the team and sports took the first place with the mean value of 3.
The non-sponsor firms that make connection with the team by providing awareness with low costs took the second place with the mean value of 3. The perception of the firms that identify themselves emotionally with the team took the last place with the mean value of 3.
In the same table, it is clear that when the counter strategies of ambush marketing CSAM were analyzed, the protection of the sports events with legistlative measures took the highest value with the mean 4. The determination of the exact legitimate frame was the second place with the mean value of 3. The inclusion of the broad- casting organization to the sponsorship package took the last place with the mean value of 3.
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