Springtime For Germany - Various - Der Eisenberg Sampler - Vol. 4 (File)

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They help you design, develop and maintain a website, a web app or a complete web solution combining the two. The previously discussed transformations in this hypertext include transvocalization by way of instrument change from guitar to synthesizer and transposition two full tones lower. Some of the more remarkable changes in this hypertext are the result of interdimensional transformations.

Another interdimensional transformation operating on the hypertext involves rhythm. This alters the perception of the theme in relation to the beat. For example, in the hypotext example 2. However, the corresponding note in the hypertext B; example 2.

Whereas the guitar-picking riff is transposed up a minor third, the lead guitar motif is transposed down a perfect fourth. This in turn leads to an interdimensional transformation that alters the relation between the two parts. In a similar manner to the opening open-fifth D chord in the hypotext, the open-fifth F chord places an emphasis on F as a temporary tonal center. However, as the two guitar parts have not been transposed evenly, the opening notes of the lead guitar motif consist of the third of the underlying chord instead of the fundamental.

The absence of the lead vocal part reflects different hypertextual transformations. First, the vocal part could be considered to have been amputated in both the vertical and timbral dimensions. Nevertheless, many of the observed hypertextual transformations of this principal motif in the subsequent jazz-fusion section, such as transstylization or transvocalization, would remain; the only difference would be that the hypotext would have been found within the text.

However, contextual transformations such as transvaluation would have to be reassessed, given that the hypotext would now be an opening statement rather than an interlude. Exceptions would again include transformations dependent on contextual considerations. The transformation of a musical idea within a given piece is indeed often regarded as fundamental to its development.

Of course, the degree to which this development is pursued varies greatly. It is a very common phenomenon regardless of the genre or period in which the piece was composed. The study of interrelations between themes in music, or thematicism, has taken a wide variety of flavors that fall into two broad categories based in large part on what is considered a valid interrelationship: strict constructionism and organicism Webster The first category is restricted to readily identifiable and audible resemblances e.

Organicist approaches are often said to help uncover the hidden unity within the diversity of the musical surface. The exhaustive catalog of transformations found in Palimpsests leads one to notice many subtle variations that may otherwise remain overlooked.

Of course, some of these transformations can already be observed by more conventional means. For example, equivalent operations to quantitative transformations such as excisions, extensions, or substitutions are readily found in music analysis. However, some other transformations, particularly those where contextual change plays a large part, are not so commonly acknowledged and offer potentially new insights. Similarly, a metrical or harmonic change underlying an otherwise exact repetition of a theme gives rise to what we have called an interdimensional transformation, where transformations to the surrounding context rather than to the theme itself mostly alter our perception of it.

To further explore this point, we turn to the study of literature, where intratextuality originated.

Unfortunately, such words can also carry the implication that these phenomenal aspects are the result of authorial artifice. A strong parallel with intertextuality exists here. Whereas quotation or allusion is usually understood as a deliberate action on the part of the author, intertextuality also includes those interrelations such as influence or stylistic conventions that may not be so deliberate but can still be noticed by readers. Monica R. Galeviews this as a way to give greater importance to the interpretative aspect of literary analysis: One effect of this shift of emphasis is to open up the text to a variety of different readings: if we no longer look on the structure of a work as a given, something put there by the author and only waiting to be established with certainty by the critic, then it becomes easier to argue that any work may reveal different structuring principles to different readers or groups of readers, or even to the same reader at different times.

Methods that require a certain amount of interpretation, such as thematic analysis, have been slower to gain widespread acceptance. It obviously is by no means comprehensive either as a theoretical framework or as a study of A Trick of the Tail, and it leaves many questions unanswered. How should one distinguish between different types of musical hypertextuality, such as thematic transformation and musical arrangement? This may often be achieved either by creating new hypertextual transformation categories or by further dividing certain hypertextual practices into subcategories that reflect particular musical dimensions.

By discerning between the simple presence of a text within another and its actual transformation, Genette has allowed his hypertextual taxonomy to be separated rather seamlessly from its intertextual origins and applied in an intratextual setting.

While these differing points of view determine whether the musical borrowing between the pieces of an album should be considered intertextual or intratextual, the actual transformation of each thematic recurrence often remains the same, with the exception of instances where context plays a large part in perceptions of a given transformation.

This in turn demonstrates how hypertextual theory may be applied in an intratextual setting and by extension to thematic analysis. Of course, thematic recurrence has long been in common use for theatrical music, from opera and ballet to the more modern musicals and film scores. Lacasse this volume uses the terms polytextuality and polyphonography to designate collections of texts or recordings that are assembled within a larger common frame anthologies, albums, and the like.

This is notwithstanding any track reordering. This song was recorded during the same session as A Trick of the Tail, explaining the intertextual relationship. This intertextual reversing effect has previously been discussed both in literature Borges and in music Cone ; Kistner I thank Serge Lacasse for bringing to my attention an audible punch-in on both tracks andrespectively. This is notwithstanding any possible sonic differences brought about by remastering or remixing. A Trick of the Tail was remastered in and remixed for the 5.

Here, the category of transvocalization operating in a timbral dimension might be further subdivided by virtue of whether the timbre transformation is the result of an instrumental sound modification, as with the guitar part, or of a different orchestration, as with the addition of a synthesizer part. In the realm of recorded music, a myriad of sonic manipulations that are absent from literature e.

The third note of the theme, F, is repeated in the hypotext but not in the hypertext. However, such transformations usually seek to completely alter the meaning of a literary text but have rather more of an ornamental nature in music.

By hearing a single note with an underlying chord, it is possible to immediately determine whether it is consonant or dissonant in relation to the chord, thus establishing its structural or ornamental status; the same musical information is not sufficient to determine a tonal center, as the horizontal temporal unfolding is missing.

The other hypertextual transformations include a small extension of the guitar-picking part as well as another interdimensional transformation where the final note of the lead guitar motif consists of the fundamental of a major chord instead of a minor chord. Kerman is often credited with having largely defined the New Musicology movement.

Genesis: Chapter and Verse. New York: St. Bowler, Dave, and Bryan Dray. Genesis: A Biography. London: Sidgwick and Jackson. Cone, Edward T. Cook, Nicholas. A Guide to Musical Analysis. New York: Norton. Dudeque, Norton. Everett, Walter. Gale, Monica R. Hatten, Robert S. Kerman, Joseph. Contemplating Music: Challenges to Musicology. Korsyn, Kevin. New York: Columbia University Press. Laird, Andrew. Meyer, Leonard B. Explaining Music: Essays and Explorations. Moore, Allan F. Reti, Rudolph. The Thematic Process in Music.

New York: Macmillan. Ruwet, Nicolas. Schoenberg, Arnold. Style and Idea. Edited by Leonard Stein. Sharrock, Alison. Webster, James. Nursery Cryme Definitive Edition Remaster. Atlantic CD Foxtrot Definitive Edition Remaster. Atlantic Atlantic A2 UK Charisma CB Atlantic BTB. Rhino Records BP46P Pink Floyd. The Dark Side of the Moon. EMI BU The Who. The chapter maps a problematic and probably failed attempt to enter such hallowed fandom but asks what I hope are questions that remain pertinent to this day.

One starting point for this investigation was to try to observe my own becoming a fan, with respect to one particular example. The second was an abiding interest in the application of sacred imagery to secular contexts within popular culture. I explore these in tandem in this chapter. Writer of gloom-laden songs about failed relationships, he found a ready audience particularly among members of a growing student community who wanted their songs thoughtful rather than simply entertaining.

Example 3. Bythings had moved on. Cale has recorded the song at least twice My discussion here refers to the live recording, considered by fans to be the definitive version. Harmonically, the song plays frequently with vi. In the first half verse, this subsides through IV and V to I, but in the second half, it is both reinforced by iii and appears underpinning the melodic apex.

The refrain then alternates IV and vi before coming to rest on I via V. Every harmony is in root position, a normal situation in popular music. The power of the song, then, lies less in its music than in the combination of the lyrics and the way they are vocally articulated. The writer takes license here, emphasizing the mysterious power of music 1 Sam.

Even with such a bold start, uncertainty is hinted at, not only in that the chord may not be known but that it may not exist it is only hearsay. So what might we have? Bizarre indeed! So, the singer goes on to explain.

A special moment this. Popular music discourse is not known for its aesthetic content, which normally consists of little more than the assertion of taste. Here, however, we get a glimpse of a more thoroughgoing understanding. The force is audible. What is he composing? The word Hallelujah equally bafflingwhich, repeated four times, forms the refrain.

We move smartly into the second verse but immediately lose control of who you is. Originally the presumably female lover, it is now David, and we recall the biblical narrative in which he is intoxicated by Bathsheba 2 Sam. The tying to a kitchen chair introduces a strong sense of domesticity although sitting in front of a piano and explaining the workings of a phrase to an individual sitting close by is hardly less domesticbut we continue with a switch of images to Samson, defeated as his hair was cut.

In the fourth verse, however, we return to uncertainty. But who is this? Is he singing to his lover? Is David singing to Bathsheba?

To his Lord God, as opposed to Saul? And where is down below? In the last, it is presumably the earth, viewed from a heavenly perspective. The rising line simply treads the same ground as before, with the new images complaint, pilgrim only reinforcing the earlier ones the victory march. So, this song seems to explore a single present, that of a bitter failure, overlain as it is with the possibility of something greater, but a possibility not actualized.

Why, then, does it have such a strange title? When the soundtrack was released, Wainwright was a comparatively new singer who recorded for a label run by DreamWorks, the company that produced the film. Both Cale and Wainwright subtly emphasize the top point of the arpeggio, but for Cale this is the second quaver of every second beat example 3. There are subtleties in diction, too.

Neither, however, gives many clues regarding the strange title. It is a word one would not necessarily expect to find in the world of secular popular song. It entered, presumably, Springtime For Germany - Various - Der Eisenberg Sampler - Vol.

4 (File) gospel, where it is of course common. For Collins, however, the falling minor third carries connotations of strength in spite of appearances.

The word hallelujah also can also be found in contexts where it appears ironically. It is underpinned by the presence of the rough-and-ready crumhorn.

The minor third is emphasized; the first phrase is doubled a diatonic third higher by backing singers, and the second a third lower, in each case suggesting major thirds. In the first, it is an exultation of praise, as we might expect. In the second, it represents either the desire for or the recognition of the impossibility of such praise. Yet the term is still used. There is surely a willfulness here, a refusal to bow to the inevitable. It includes only four verses: the first two as sung by both Cale and Wainwright, and two totally different verses.

Nobody recognises my version but I always save that song until the end of the set. In addition, Cohen has a deep and comparatively inexpressive voice. The playout consists of multiply repeated, almost selfindulgent, hallelujahs. As Cohen clarified in a interview with Robert Hilburn, I wanted to write something in the tradition of the hallelujah choruses but from a different point of view. On the contrary, you have to stand up and say hallelujah under those circumstances. At that time, all I knew about Buckley was that he was now dead, that he had released only one album, and that he was son of the late Tim Buckley, doyen of s coffeehouses.

Had I, indeed, entered it at an inappropriate point? Buckley accompanies himself on electric guitar, but with no distortion. It has a fairly resonant echo, reminiscent of the early style of Billy Bragg. Buckley sings the same lyrics as do Cale and Wainwright but incorporates a solo guitar passage before the final verse. This almost conversational nature is matched by his approach to the lyrics.

He is sometimes slightly late, conveying the impression that he is working Springtime For Germany - Various - Der Eisenberg Sampler - Vol. 4 (File) just the right way to express himself prior to doing so. The hallelujah is not a homage to a worshipped person, idol or god, but the hallelujah of the orgasm. It is excruciating. The worst does however come from Shrek. Samshmouth doing daudream beliver. B: Yes.

I own the Soundtrack. I have not heard Cales though. A: Ahh, but one of the Amazon. So maybe that happened here. I WIN! And the identity of the singer is not a trivial matter: critical judgment, here, appears to rest on the aesthetic qualities of the voice involved.

Please tell me why you disagree. D: Because Rufus Wainwright deserves to be beaten with sticks for existing. Of course, since his death it has made me cry like a baby. Rufus does do a lovely job with the song, but Jeff just seemed to be more into it. The difference comes down to probably no more than a matter of taste. Similar terms here: angelic yet again, and an excess of emotion. K: You guys all need to keep in mind that Rufus could not sore and fly like an eagle when the song was recorded as background music on a movie.

My guess is that he was constricted by the requirements of the movie maker. Im sure if Rufus had wanted to, his song could have dominated and been the subject of these accolades instead of blending perfectly with the scene and the movie. A soundtrack is meant to compliment the movie not overpower it. Only here in this conversation do we find a post that tries to conceptualize the recordings, to concern itself less with simply how the recordings sound and more with why they might sound that way.

It contains an error, though, in that Wainwright recorded for the CD soundtrack, not for the movie itself. It hits you. God, I miss him. For the first time, we find recognition that what is expressed is a matter of interpretation, that this is not simply authentic expression but putting something from another point of view. This is, of course, a fundamental feature of the song as Cohen originally wrote it, since it takes a variety of authorial voices.

M: Honestly and I will I draw ire over this one. I like Buckleys version the least. Which ranks the song behind the versions done by cale I am a hardcore VU supporterrufus and the origional by leonard cohen. Buckley just annoys me. I love it. Not even Leonard Cohen whom I am a big fan of, as well.

You can hear everything the man is feeling; he is pouring his heart out to you through the words of a master lyricist. Nothing can compare. So, even the divine is lower than the angels, especially when they are rooted to the earth. She ties him to her kitchen chair: she holds him with her domestic hospitality, her nurturing love. The intentional fallacy dies hard. People perceive some difference in conceptualization of the intentions behind these different versions. However, there is not just one discourse.

On the independent site, however, familiarity with Cale is much more strongly assumed a circumstance that may reflect the age of the group members. InKathryn Williams recorded a typically understated version of the song, underpinning her gently arpeggiated guitar with a tenor cello line and subtle stand-up bass. The gender of her addressee is left ambiguous.

Most important, however, Bono, the lead singer of U2, recorded the song on a tribute album to Cohen. Bono speaks his five verses in a somewhat melodic but typically rather gruff voice, singing only the hallelujahs. Verse 1 moves straight through to verse 2, with no refrain. The refrain appears after verse 2, as the drum filter reverses to produce a very trebly sound, with the entry of the rudimentary bass. The groove drops out for the beginning of verse 3 before returning, and the verse is followed by a short refrain.

Listeners might arguably supply the unspoken major resolution that they would have been able to hear from Cohen, Cale, and Buckley and purchasers of this particular album would almost certainly have had a wide knowledge of Cohen performances and performers.

The effect of this on audiences was clear: Example 3. I share E. The historian is just another dim figure trudging along in another part of the procession. And as the procession winds along, swerving now to the right and now to the left, and sometimes doubling back on itself, the relative positions of different parts of the procession are constantly changing.

My point of entry is with the strange Hebrew word hallelujah. It was later published in Italy Mooreand a version has circulated on the web.

This is the same version as the one found on Caleexcept for one verse that has been cut, obviously for synchronization purposes.

This chapter relies extensively on fan discourse, which takes up so much web space. However, Cohen repeatedly returned to this theme see Zollo Here and throughout the chapter, all spellings and punctuation are reproduced from Springtime For Germany - Various - Der Eisenberg Sampler - Vol.

4 (File) original posts. At least, that is my assumption. I have been unable to ascertain whether this was the case. I thank Dai Griffiths and Lee Marshall for enabling me to hear these performances.

What Is History? London: Penguin. Clarke, Donald, ed. Penguin Encyclopedia of Popular Music. Cohen, Leonard. Stranger Music: Selected Poems and Songs.

London: Cape. Fuller, Russ. The Poetry of Rock. New York: Bantam. Levitin, Daniel. New York: Dutton Penguin, Walser, Robert. Walsh, Nick Paton. Zollo, Paul. Songwriters on Songwriting. New York: Da Capo. Discography Belafonte, Harry. RCA Victor. Various artists. Buckley, Jeff. Cale, John. Directed by Andrew Adamson and Vicky Jenson. Edited version of Cale Cave, Nick. Charles, Ray. Songs from a Room. Collins, Judy. Harrison, George.

Thompson, Richard, and Linda Thompson. Twain, Shania. Wainwright, Rufus. Movie soundtrack. Williams, Kathryn. ZZ Top. Warner Bros. I mean, it works like a whole. And I promise, when you come back, I will have stuff for you that will blow your minds.

Inspired by Rubber Soul, Brian Wilson began writing and recording the songs for what would become Pet Sounds, an extraordinary album, which upon its release in May immediately caught the attention of the Beatles, especially Paul McCartney, as they were working on the songs for their next album, Revolver. Drawing heavily on Freudian psychoanalysis, Bloom casts this as a kind of Oedipal struggle between sons and fathers, where strong poets successfully wrestle with their great poetic forefathers to achieve originality.

Not all music historians have been persuaded by the Bloomian model, however. Indeed, it is telling that Wilfred Mellers called his watershed musicological study of the Beatles Twilight of the Gods. In Februarybefore Lynne officially joined the band, the Move scored their first and only U. Motown songs still rated highly on the U. It peaked at No.

Table 4. Example Springtime For Germany - Various - Der Eisenberg Sampler - Vol. 4 (File). Blue Sky. And one day the sun came out to shine and it was fantastic. The Electric Light Orchestra would record and release two more albums, Secret Messages and Balance of Powerbefore Lynne decided to disband the group as its popularity was clearly waning, especially in the United States. Symphonic rock groups such as ELO apparently had no place within the slick, synth-driven pop landscape of the later s.

This palette of hit songs exemplifies just how stylistically eclectic the U. Though on its way out, disco remained the prevalent style in the summer ofwith Lipps Inc. Reggae had long since outgrown its novelty status, as represented by Bob Marley and the Wailers enjoying their biggest U.

American soul music distinct from disco also fared well on the U. With respect to the topic of musical influence, however, I am most interested in the single at No.

Lynne reconstituted the Electric Light Orchestra briefly in the early s, releasing one album Zoom on which both Harrison and Starr appeared as guest musicians.

But this ersatz classical music places them more in the Moody Blues tradition. ELO is a band with no musical identity of its own. Swenson Yet a funny thing about rock history is that it often takes decades for critics to realize just how important a band was, as seems to be the case with ELO. Christmas No. I am most grateful to Gordon and the other panelists, Walter Everett and Albin Zak, for their valuable feedback on that earlier version and to Gordon Turnbull for his editorial suggestions, which proved especially helpful during my final stages of revision.

The story of the creative rivalry between these two groups usually begins with Rubber Soul but really should be extended back a couple of years: inthe Beach Boys were the top-selling pop artists in the United States according to Billboard, but the Beatles conquered America the following year.

It was a very weird record, but yeah, I liked it. In truth, however, the list of musicians influenced by the Beatles is infinite. To be fair, though, not all popular music historians share such a reverence for the Beatles see Wald Curtis was perhaps the first rock critic to invoke Bloom by suggesting that the Beatles themselves displayed a certain anxiety of influence toward the music of their idols in their early songs.

All of them failed to make much of a dent on the U. All U. On the distinction between stylistic and strategic intertextuality, see Spicer LP, With the Beatles November Philip Tagg has introduced the term shuttle to refer to a one-chord vamp or an oscillating progression involving just two chords as opposed to a loop, which refers to a circular progression involving three chords or more.

The U. Cromelin was the first feature article on the Electric Light Orchestra other than a record or concert review to appear in Rolling Stone. Recorded on eight-track equipment, the song is about an escaped prisoner according to Lynne and takes its title from a serial number Lynne saw on the mixing console. For more on accumulative beginnings in pop and rock songs, see Spicer But like the Move, Wizzard was unable to achieve any real success in the United States, and by late Wood had dissolved the group.

Bevan himself left ELO Part II in and sold his half of the rights to the Electric Light Orchestra name back to Lynne, while the remaining members of the spin-off group have continued performing with various lineup changes under the moniker the Orchestra. I think most fans would agree with me, however, that without Lynne, it is really not the Electric Light Orchestra. Prog Sphere recently ranked Eldorado No. Melvyn Gale replaced Edwards in Like all four Beatles and many other pop and rock musicians past and presentLynne never learned how to read and write music, preferring instead to use the recording studio as his canvas.

He hired young arranger Louis Clark classically trained at the Leeds College of Music to assist with the extended string and choir arrangements for Eldorado. Blue Sky For more on the double-plagal and other stock modal triadic progressions in rock, see Everett ; Biamonte For more on the reception history of Jamaican reggae in the United Kingdom, see Spicer, nn.

Orbison had not had a hit record in the United Kingdom or United States since the mids. The resulting album, Mr. Alone in the Universe debuted at No. Lynne and ELO have come to be recognized as something of a national treasure in their native United Kingdom but have not retained such mainstream popularity in the United States.

References Biamonte, Nicole. Bloom, Harold. New York: Oxford University Press. A Map of Misreading. Shakespeare: The Invention of the Human. New York: Putnam. Bonds, Mark Evan. After Beethoven: Imperatives of Originality in the Symphony. Braae, Nick. Covach, John. Cromelin, Richard. Cromer, Ben. Curtis, James M. Doll, Christopher. The Beatles as Musicians: Revolver through the Anthology. Burlington, VT: Ashgate. Flory, Andrew. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Gaines, Steven. Gilmore, Mikal.

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