Little Wonders - Non Sufficient Funds (2) - One Red Cent (CD, Album)
Hofstadter and Daniel C. Rene A. I, pp. Spitz, M. Wolf, Ph. II, p. Marilyn T. Leo Kanner, M. Thomas Publisher, Springfield, Illinois,pp. Raymond J. Corsini, ed. Ozaki, assistant ed. Harry F. Osler and Robert E. Cooke, eds. Stephen J. Suomi and Harry F.
Maser and Martin E. Seligman, W. Freeman and Company, San Francisco,pp. When the Crusaders of Christ took Jerusalem inthe anonymous author of the Gesta Francorum reported "there was such a massacre that our men were wading up to their ankles in enemy blood. Archbishop William of Tyre described a "spectacle of headless bodies and mutilated limbs strewn in all directions that roused horror in all who looked upon them. Still more dreadful was it to gaze upon the victors themselves, dripping with blood from head to foot.
Gargi Dutt and V. Altmann, ed. Jay, ed. Edward O. David P. Barash's two books, by the way, constitute an extremely good introduction to the relatively new field of sociobiology. And Sociobiology and Behavior is a comprehensive academic overview.
For those willing to tackle the difficult, there is the ultimate sociobiology book, an intellectual tour de force, E. Wilson's Sociobiology. This is the book that virtually created the field of sociobiology. Mao gloated that "All those who have tried to repress the student movement in China have ended up badly. Karol, The Second Chinese Revolution, p. The entire tale told in this chapter is from Gao Yuan's book Born Red. Additional historical background is given in the book's introduction by William A.
For Mao's success in regaining power, see also: K. Karol, The Second Chinese Revolution, pp. Dutt, China's Cultural Revolution, pp. Do you not believe Rousseau claimed that without civilization, humans would never know hatred, prejudice or cruelty. Today, the Rousseauistic doctrine seems stronger than ever. Twentieth century writers and scientists like Ashley Montagu, Claude Levi-Strauss who hailed Rousseau as the "father of anthropology"Eric Jantsch, David Barash, Richard Leakey and Susan Sontag have reworked the notion to condemn current industrial civilization.
They have been joined by numerous feminist, 2 environmentalist and minority rights extremists. Even such august scientific bodies as the American Anthropological Association, the American Psychological Association, and the Peace And War Section of the American Sociological Association have joined the cause, absolving "natural man" of malevolence by endorsing "The Seville Statement," an international manifesto which declares that "violence is neither in our evolutionary legacy nor in our genes.
Our society is supposedly an incubator for everything that appalls us. However, culture alone is not responsible for violence, cruelty, and war. Despite the Seville Statement's contentions, our biological legacy weaves evil into the substrate of even the most "unspoiled" society.
What's more, organized battle is not restricted to humans. Ants make war and either massacre or enslave a rival swarm. Cichlid fish gang up and attack outsiders.
Female bees chase an overaged queen through the corridors of the hive and lunge, biting over and over until she is dead. And even rival "super coalitions" of a half-dozen male dolphins fight like street gangs, often inflicting serious injuries. Fish seldom go to the movies. Myxobacteria, lizards, dolphins and bees have not been "programmed" by Western culture. A host of writers gained attention in the late eighties and early nineties with books that celebrated a return to a mothering earth.
They felt that if we scraped away large-scale agriculture, internal-combustion engines, televisions, and air-conditioners, nature would return to bless us with her primordial paradise. Unfortunately these authors held a distorted view of pre- industrial reality.
A pride of lions at their ease enjoys the kind of nature the radical environmentalists dreamed about. You can see the smiles on lions' faces as they lick their paws and stretch out on the ground side by side, clearly pleased with the comfort of each other's warmth.
You can see the benevolence with which a mother keeps a cub from playfully tearing her tail apart. She lifts her huge paw and gently shoves the infant aside when his nipping becomes too painful. But nature has given these lion mothers only one way of feeding their children. The hunt. This afternoon, these peaceful creatures will tear a gazelle limb from limb.
The panicked beast will try frantically to avoid the felines closing in on her. But they will break her neck and drag her across the plain still alive and kicking.
Her eyes will be open and aware as her flesh is gashed and torn. Suppose for a minute that lions were suddenly stricken with guilt about their feeding habits and swore off meat. What would they accomplish? They would starve themselves and their children. For nature has given them only one option: to kill. Killing is not an invention of man.
It is an invention of nature. Nature's amusements are cruel. A female sea turtle crawls painfully up the beach of a tropical island, dragging her bulk across the sand. Slowly she digs a nest with her hind flippers and lays her eggs. From those eggs come a thousand tiny, irresistible babies, digging out of the sand, blinking at the light for the first time, rapidly gaining their orientation from a genetically preprogrammed internal compass, then taking their first walk, a race toward the sea.
As the infants scoot awkwardly across the beach, propelling themselves with flippers built for an entirely different task, sea birds who have been waiting for this feast swoop down to enjoy meal after high protein meal. Of a thousand newborns, perhaps three will make it to the safety of the ocean waves. No, they're engaged in the same effort as the baby turtles--the effort to survive. Hegel, the 19th century German philosopher, said that true tragedy occurs not when good battles evil, but when one good battles another.
Nature has made that form of tragedy a basic law of her universe. She presents her children with a choice between death and death. She offers a carnivore the options of dying by starvation or of killing for a meal. Nature is like a sculptor continually improving upon her work, but to do it she chisels away at living flesh. What's worse, she has built her morally reprehensible modus operandi into our physiology.
If you occasionally feel that you are of several minds on one subject, you are probably right. In reality, you have several brains. And those brains don't always agree. Paul D. MacLean was the researcher who first posited the concept of "the triune brain.
Sitting atop that rudimentary stump is a mass of cerebral tissue bequeathed us by our earliest totally land-dwelling ancestors--the reptiles.
The new landlubbers needed to hunt, to find a mate, to carve out territory and to fight in that territory's defense. The neural machinery they evolved took care of these elementary functions. MacLean calls it the reptile brain. The reptile brain still sits inside our skull like the pit at the center of a peach. It is a vigorous participant in our mental affairs, pumping its primitive, instinctual orders to us at all hours of the day and night.
Eons after the first reptiles ambled away from the beach, their great, great grandchildren many times removed evolved a few dramatic product improvements. These upgrades included fur, warm blood, the ability to nurture eggs inside their own bodies, and the portable supply of baby food we know as milk.
The remodeled creatures were no longer reptiles. They had become mammals. Mammals' innovative features gave them the ability to leave the lush tropics and make their way into the chilly north. Their warm blood allowed them, in fact, to survive the rigors of the occasional ice age. But warm blood exacted its costs.
It demanded that mammal parents not simply lay an egg and wander off. It forced mammal mothers to brood over their children for years. And it required a tighter social organization to take care of these suckling clusters of mammal mamas and kids. All this demanded that a few additions be built onto the old reptilian brain. Nature complied by constructing an envelope of new neural tissue. That tissue surrounded the reptile brain like a peach's juicy fruit enveloping the pit.
MacLean called the add-on the mammalian brain. The mammalian brain guided play, maternal behavior, and a host of other emotions. It kept our furry ancestors knitted together in nurturing gangs.
Far down the winding path of time, a few of our fuzzy progenitors tried something new. They stood on their hind legs, looked around them, and applied their minds and hands to the exploitation of the world.
These were the early humans. But proto-human aspirations were impractical without the construction of another set of add-ons to the brain.
Nature complied, wrapping a thin layer of fresh neural substance around the two old cortical standbys--the reptilian and mammalian brains. The new structure, stretched around the old ones like a peach's skin, was the neo-cortex--the primate brain. The primate brain--including the human brain--had some awesome powers.
It could envision the future. It could weigh a possible action and imagine the consequences. It could support the development of language, reason and culture. It was merely a thin veneer on the two ancient brains.
And those oldsters were as active as ever, measuring every bit of input from the eyes and ears, and issuing fresh orders. The thinking human, no matter how exalted his sentiments, was still listening to the voices of a demanding reptile and a chattering ancient mammal. Both were speaking to him from the depths of his own skull. Richard Leakey, the eminent paleoanthropologist, says war didn't exist until men invented agriculture and began to acquire possessions. In the back of Leakey's mind, one hears a wistful prayer that agriculture would go away so we could rediscover peace.
But Leaky is very wrong. Violence is not a product of the digging stick and hoe. In the Kalahari desert of southern Africa live a people called the! Kung have no agriculture and very little technology.
They live off the fruit and plants their women gather and the animals their men hunt. Their way of life is so simple that hordes of anthropologists have studied them, convinced that the! Kung live as our ancestors must have over ten thousand years ago, before the domestication of plants. In the early years of!
Kung ethnography, anthropologists became wildly excited. These simple people had no violence, they said. Anthropology had discovered the key to human harmony--abolish the modern world and return to hunting and gathering.
Richard Leakey used the! Kung as his model of paradisal pre-agriculturists. Kung way of life proved that without the plow, men would not have the sword. Yet later studies revealed a blunt and still under-publicized fact. Kung men solve the problem of adultery through murder. As a result, the! Kung have a homicide rate higher than that in New York. Kung violence takes place primarily between individuals. In both humans and animals, however, the greatest violence occurs not between individuals but between groups.
It is most appalling in war. Diane Fossey, the woman who devoted nineteen years 12 to living among and observing the mountain gorillas of Central Africa's Virunga mountains, felt these creatures were among the most peaceful on earth. Yet mountain gorillas become killers when their social groups come face to face. Fossey actually recovered skulls with canine cusps still embedded in their crests. The resulting battles between gorilla tribes are furious.
One of the bands that Fossey followed was led by a powerful silverback, an enormous male who left a skirmish with his flesh so badly ripped that the head of an arm bone and numerous ligaments stuck out through the broken skin. The old ruling male, whom Fossey called Beethoven, had been supported in the fight by his son, Icarus. Icarus left the battle scene with eight massive wounds where the enemy had bitten him on the head and arms. The site where the conflict had raged was covered with blood, tufts of fur, broken saplings and diarrhetic dung.
Gorillas are not the only sub-humans to cluster in groups that set off to search for blood. In the early '70s, Jane Goodall had lived fourteen years among the wild chimpanzees of Tanzania's Gombe Reserve. She loved the chimps for their gentle ways, so different from the violence back home among humans.
Yes, there were simian muggings, beatings and rage. But the ultimate horror--war--was absent. Goodall published a landmark book on chimpanzee behavior--In The Shadow of Man--a work which to some proved unequivocally that war was a human creation. After all, the creatures shown by genetic and immunological Little Wonders - Non Sufficient Funds (2) - One Red Cent (CD to be our nearest cousins in the animal kingdom knew nothing of organized, wholesale violence.
The tribe of chimps Goodall had been watching became quite large. Food was harder to find. Quarrels broke out. To relieve the pressure, the unit finally split into two separate tribes.
One band stayed in the old home territory. The other left to carve out a new life in the forest to the south. At first the two groups lived in relative peace. Then the males from the larger band began to make trips south to the patch of land occupied by the splinter unit. The marauders' purpose was simple: to harass and ultimately kill the separatists.
They beat their former friends mercilessly, breaking bones, opening massive wounds, and leaving the resultant cripples to die a slow and lingering death. When the raids were over, five males and one elderly female had been murdered. The separatist group had been destroyed. Its sexually active females and part of its territory had been annexed by the males of the band from the home turf. It was a discovery she had hoped she would never make.
He concluded that "the happy-go-lucky chimpanzee has turned out to be the most lethal ape--an organized, cooperative warrior It is not an invention of either western or eastern civilization.
In fact, it is not a uniquely human proclivity at all. It comes from something both sub and superhuman, something we share with gorillas, apes, fish and ants--a brutality that speaks to us through the animals in our brain. If man has contributed anything of his own to the equation, it is this: he has learned to dream of peace. But to achieve that dream, he will have to overcome what nature has built into him.
They do most of the killing, and they also do most of the dying. This makes men sound pretty atrocious. And, indeed, they are. Males by far outdo females in aggression. Remove the testicles from a rooster and it becomes a peace-loving bird.
Sew the testes back into its stomach and the masculine hormones once again flood the fowl's bloodstream. Now the recently mild-mannered chicken struts off to start a fight. It's not surprising when folks declare that if only we had female leaders, war and international aggression would rapidly disappear Many people are convinced that females are inherently peaceful.
OK, so Margaret Thatcher, the female Prime Minister of Britain, won the Falklands war, supplied the British military with nuclear submarines, and packed those subs with atomically-tipped ballistic missiles.
Indira Gandhi led a military campaign against Pakistan, jailed her opponents and suspended civil liberties. And Peru's Shining Path guerrilla assassination squads were headed almost entirely by women. Or are they? Keys and her husband, Kasseem Dean professionally known as Swizz Beatz are also avid art collectors. Keys and Dean are co-chairs of the Gordon Parks Foundation, which permanently preserves the work of Gordon Parksthe pioneering photographer, filmmaker, musician and activist.
InKeys released a Masterclass. Keys invites fans into her studio to share her process for creating music built from authentic emotion. The class was met with rave reviews. For over a decade, Keys was in a low-profile romantic relationship with her long-time good friend and collaborator Kerry Brothers Jr.
Keys later dated hip hop artist-producer Swizz Beatz. Keys and Beatz, who have known each other since they were teenagers,  announced they were engaged and expecting their first child in May From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. American singer-songwriter from New York. New York CityU. Singer songwriter pianist actress philanthropist author activist. Swizz Beatz. See also: List of awards and nominations received by Alicia Keys. Main article: Alicia Keys discography. The Times.
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Retrieved May 26, Star Tribune. Retrieved September 24, I'm definitely black and Italian and a little Irish or Scottish. March 9, Retrieved June 1, December 1, Retrieved August 21, Archived from the original on February 24, Retrieved January 24, O, The Oprah Magazine.
September Retrieved May 28, American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers. June 1, Archived from the original on May 30, Retrieved May 29, Huffington Post.
USA Today. August 13, Archived from the original on April 28, Dot" Miller May 16, Rap Radar Podcast. Event occurs at Retrieved May 25, Ghetto Story Song. Sunday Mail. News Corp Australia. Archived from the original on June 25, Retrieved June 24, — via Petrastark. My mother raised me and I saw her struggle and work and I'm not under any illusions — I know exactly what I could go right back to. The Gospel Short film.
Zee News. July 15, Retrieved May 23, April 22, Johnson Publishing Company. ISSN Heart and Soul. Sirius XM. If there was ever a path or a road that could take me to the wrong side of the street, it would be where I grew up.
Cause there was every option there to choose the wrong one. I think actually growing up around that really taught me a lot when getting into this business, you know, cause this [business] is similar to Hell's Kitchen; there's all the options, and you can either go the right way or you can kind of fall off I give thanks that where I grew up kind of prepared me for that so that I could have a particular focus, cause I didn't want to end up like so many people that I saw on the street every day.
Retrieved May 30, Simon and Schuster. Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on June 28, The New York Times. September 22, Retrieved June 14, The Boombox. Townsquare Media. June 5, Retrieved April 16, Crain's New York Business.
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The Seattle Times Company. Archived from the original on May 2, Retrieved May 3, Archived from the original on December 5, Retrieved April 23, Retrieved February 15, Archived from the original on October 13, Retrieved July 22, Archived from the original on August 7, Retrieved March 14, Associated Newspapers.
March 7, Archived from the original on December 16, Retrieved November 9, The Recording Academy. Retrieved September 6, BBC America.
February 11, Archived from the original on February 15, Retrieved February 13, Christina Aguilera. October 29, Archived from the original on January 25, CBS Corporation. February 17, Retrieved January 27, London: News Corporation. The Korea Times. Retrieved November 14, Daily News. New York. Archived from the original on December 4, Retrieved December 4, August 30, Retrieved February 3, May 13, Retrieved December 29, November 11, Archived from the original on December 7, November February 15, The album's splashy, cinematic videos — from the John Landis-directed short film that promoted "Thriller" to the West Side Story homage accompanying "Beat It" — legitimized the still-nascent form and forced MTV to incorporate black artists into its playlists.
Its promotional strategy, which led to seven of its nine tracks being released as singles, raised the bar for what, exactly, constituted a "hit-laden" LP. Beyond breaking ground, it broke records, showing just how far pop could reach: the biggest selling album of all time, the first album to win eight Grammys in a single night and the first album to stay in the Top 10 charts for a year. Epic Records also reflected on the importance of the album: "More than just an album, Thriller has remained a global cultural multi-media phenomenon for both the 20th and the 21st centuries, smashing musical barriers and changing the frontiers of pop forever.
The music on Thriller is so dynamic and singular that it defied any definition of rock, pop or soul that had gone before. From the moment Thriller was released, it set the standard for the music industry: artists, record labels, producers, marketers and even choreographers. The music video was ahead of its time and it is considered a monumental one—not only in Jackson's career, but also in the history of pop music.
Epic Records' approach to creating a song and video that would appeal to the mass market ended up influencing the way that professionals now market and release their songs.
Before the success of Thrillermany felt Jackson had struggled to get MTV airing because he was black. His position persuaded MTV to begin airing " Billie Jean " and later " Beat It ", along with Prince 's " Little Red Corvette " which led to a long partnership and later helped other black music artists to gain mainstream recognition.
When the minute-long Thriller video aired, MTV ran it twice an hour to meet demand. They were already pleased with its success, so Jackson convinced MTV to fund the project. Author, music critic and journalist Nelson George wrote in"It's difficult to hear the songs from Thriller and disengage them from the videos. For most of us the images define the songs. In fact it could be argued that Michael is the first artist of the MTV age to have an entire album so intimately connected in the public imagination Album) its imagery".
For a black artist in the s to that point, Jackson's success was unprecedented. According to The Washington PostThriller paved the way for other African-American artists to achieve mainstream recognition, such as Prince. He is the hottest single phenomenon since Elvis Presley. He just may be the most popular black singer ever. Thriller has continued to receive positive reviews. Stephen Thomas Erlewine of AllMusic wrote that it had something to interest everyone.
He believed it showcased harder funk and hard rock while remaining "undeniably fun", and wrote that "Wanna Be Startin' Somethin'", was "the freshest funk on the album [but] the most claustrophobic, scariest track Jackson ever recorded. Thriller had extra musical help in becoming the best-selling non compilation album of all time: Jackson's dancing feet and dazzling stage presence, amplified by the newfound promotional reach of music video and the Reagan era 's embrace of glossy celebrity.
But especially in the album's seven hit singles out of nine songsthe music stands on its own. KellyUsherJustin Timberlake and countless others with Thriller as a textbook". InThriller was awarded the Special Billboard Award to commemorate its 10th anniversary. The book states; it is the finest example of perfect disco pop, and a record that should be prescribed to musical snobs and manic depressives.
Thriller was reissued on October 16,in an expanded set, Thriller: Special Edition. The album is remastered and includes a new booklet and bonus material, including the songs "Someone in the Dark", "Carousel" and Jackson's original "Billie Jean" demo, as well as audio interviews with Jones and Temperton.
Thriller 25 was a commercial success and did particularly well as a reissue. It peaked at number one in eight countries and Europe. It peaked at number two in the US, number three in the UK and reached the top 10 in over 30 national charts. It was ineligible for the Billboard chart as a re-release but entered the Pop Catalog Charts at number one where it stayed for ten non-consecutive weeks with the best sales on that chart since December This brought US sales of the album tocopies, making it the best-selling catalog album of After Jackson's death in JuneThriller set additional records.
It sold more thancopies, placing it at number two on the Top Pop Catalog Albums chart. Songs from Thriller also helped Jackson become the first artist to sell more than one million song downloads in a week. For one week beginning November 20,Google Play Music offered an exclusive free copy of the album to its users in the U. S which included the demo of "Billie Jean" as an additional track.
Personnel as listed in the album's liner notes are: . From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Michael Jackson. Excerpt of the album's title track and one of Jackson's signature pieces, "Thriller", released as a single in Jackson uses cinematic sound effects, horror film motifs and vocal trickery to convey a sense of danger.
It is the most notable ballad on the album, praised for its moody, introspective lyrics and sound. The song was written and co-produced by Jackson. The track mixed uptempo funk and disco with the somber themes of paranoia and obsession. Quincy Jones Jackson [a]. Jones Jackson [a].
Steve Porcaro John Bettis. James Ingram Jones. Alan Bergman Marilyn Bergman Temperton. Michael Sembello Don Freeman. List of best-selling albums List of best-selling albums in Australia List of best-selling albums in Austria List of best-selling albums in Canada List of best-selling albums in France List of best-selling albums in Germany List of best-selling albums in Japan List of best-selling albums in Mexico List of best-selling albums in New Zealand List of best-selling albums in Spain List of best-selling albums in the United Kingdom List of best-selling albums in the United States List of diamond-certified albums in Argentina List of number-one dance singles of U.
Virgin Media. Retrieved December 12, Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on December 23, Retrieved June 15, Johnson Publishing Company. ISSN American Antiquarian Society. How much is that in real money? Retrieved January 1, Thriller 25 booklet.
The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved April 20, Interviewed by Jesse Jackson. Retrieved January 22, Retrieved January 14, Archived from the original on December 4, Not many artists could pull off such a variety of styles funk, post-disco, rock, easy listening, ballads Inside the Hits. Berklee Press. ISBN Archived from the original on May 7, Retrieved November 11, Slant Magazine.
Language Log. The story behind these seemingly nonsensical syllables is a fascinating one, originating in the Cameroonian language Duala Jackson apparently claimed his version was Swahili, but he eventually acknowledged his debt to [Cameroonian singer Manu] Dibango International Music Publications.
The New York Times. Retrieved April 19, April 1, Archived from the original on March 27, Austin fundamentally collapsed the opposition between speaking and acting in How to do Things with Words.
Speaking is an act in itself and not only an abstract expression of meaningful or meaningless propositions. Anarchists, including Bone, have also acknowledged this. Nationalist newspaper sales, leaflets and public oratory are not merely ways of broadcasting ideas and means for encouraging debate.
As speech-acts they also serve to marginalise and exclude sections of society and mark geographical regions as restricted to privileged groups.
So too events have a communicative purpose that can be read textually. An example of direct action, such as tearing up genetically modified crops, can be read as a symbol of wider ecological concern or as a provocative inquiry that questions rights to land ownership. The apparent distinction between theorising and action is really about who is involved in their performance and those whom the act intends to influence.
If speech-acts are activities just like any other, then on what grounds can this study justify concentrating on contemporary events and propaganda, and downplaying classical theoretical texts? The answer involves acknowledging the importance of the identities of the agents involved in the actions and the types of agent appealed to. It is on the grounds of the involvement and identity of active and affected agents that distinctions are drawn between propaganda and theorising.
Theorising is interpreted by Bone as discourse created by and towards elite groups especially those not involved in the events to which the speech acts refer. Action, then, for Bone, aims at and aspires to include, as autonomous participants, wider groups of individuals — in particular the revolutionary agent of change.
Thus certain speech-acts, such as leafleting and speaking tours in response to the activities of organised racists in working class communities, are forms of political action. Publication and distribution of tracts by the classical anarchist thinkers was originally part of popular agitation. However, in the principal period addressed by this studythe publication of these same writers is more often associated with distribution to a specialised, academically-privileged audience and therefore designated pejoratively as theorising.
In anarchist direct action the agents are those immediately affected by the problem under consideration, whereas other forms of direct action promote benevolent and sometimes malevolent paternalism. By undertaking a critique that is sensitive to, and draws heavily upon, the accounts of the activists themselves, the objective is to avoid some of the pitfalls identified by Simon Sadler in the introduction to his book The Situationist City.
Sadler notes that university-based researchers engaging in analysis of revolutionary movements in his case the Situationist International provoke numerous criticisms from revolutionary activists.
These reproaches suggest that the researcher is misrepresenting the subject by using the tools and debates that are the concerns of an intellectual elite rather than the participants themselves, or that the author is domesticating the revolutionary potential of their subject by integrating it into academic discourse. It would be disingenuous to deny that universities especially the ones which assisted this project were not elite institutions and that any research, even that which is self-consciously radical, is not only going to be damned by association but risks only being of interest or available to those who seek to police autonomous, egalitarian activity.
Nonetheless, efforts have been made to resist the reduction of anarchism into a subject of study for the dominant class, and to this end a particular methodology is employed.
The procedure developed has at its core the recognition that anarchism is primarily a mode of revolutionary action rather than a set of theoretical texts. As a result this book concentrates on the materials of the revolutionary groups, their magazines, newspapers, journals, books, pamphlets, posters, stickers, graffiti and websites as well as describing their actions.
This stands in contrast to the approach of many critics of anarchism, such as James Joll, George Woodcock and Peter Marshall, who have examined the movement largely through the supposed canon of the classical anarchist thinkers; but few contemporary anarchists are directly inspired by these writers. It would be surprising if the thousands participating in libertarian events had read the standard texts by Michael Bakunin, Pierre-Joseph Proudhon or Emma Goldman.
Consequently the works of the classical writers are referred to, but only in order to elucidate the explanations of more recent activists.
This book attempts to describe contemporary anarchist movements and to show they are significant and important forms of antipolitical thought. The form of assessment I have developed aims to be sympathetic to, and consistent with, the evaluative techniques of anarchism itself see above.
This was not a matter of principle but due to the unpopularity of the subject, matched maybe by a similar suspicion of the author, amongst grant awarding bodies. Nonetheless there are still many weaknesses within the text that I am unable to resolve. Reductionism and omission has unavoidably occurred — even in a document of this size.
My apparent tone of confidence in providing a linear narrative is similarly inappropriate for a movement that is contingent, fluid and diffuse. As a result, there are many groups, journals and individuals who have been unjustly excluded or included to their chagrin or whose original, thoughtful and inspiring ideas and actions have been diminished or overlooked.
Looking at the histories of anarchism, primarily in the British context, not only helps characterise some of the debates inherited by contemporary libertarians but also illustrates that it is not an isolated national phenomenon, but developed out of worldwide movements. The different guises that class struggle anarchisms have adopted are indicative of their varied tactical and theoretical formulations as well as the diverse contexts in which they have developed.
There is, at present, no single text that covers the history of British anarchism, so this account draws upon a large number of competing, partial accounts.
Also of significant relevance were the first hand accounts of activists of the period such as Rudolph Rocker and Errico Malatesta and the pamphlets reissued by the Kate Sharpley Library KSLan archive that not only preserves anarchist texts but reprints and distributes previously overlooked accounts.
KSL concentrates on the lived experiences of the ordinary activist rather than the deeds of the leading personalities. The first stops at the First World War, the second ends in the s with the rise of the hegemonic influence of the Communist Party, and the last ends with the failure of the Spanish Civil War. Class struggle newspapers, magazines, pamphlets and websites provide reports of their own events and those of other liberatory movements.
Critical accounts of anarchist activities also appear in orthodox marxist publications such as Socialist Review and Red Action. There are enormous difficulties with writing a history of British anarchism and the histogram fig 1. The confusion of groups, with different organisations having the same title, groups affiliating and disaffiliating, appearing, disappearing and reappearing in quick succession, are by no means unique to anarchism but are, nevertheless, significant features of this political movement.
These are the consequences of the particular anarchist approaches to organisation; the revolutionary role of the association differs significantly from that of their orthodox socialist and communist counterparts. This is not the case with most anarchist groups. The types of group proposed by anarchists stress that, as far as possible, formal structures should develop the autonomy of participants, so groups are often federal in structure and maintain a large amount of local initiative.
Thus, small groups that nevertheless may have been hugely influential in their locale, have unfortunately been excluded from the histogram. Tracking the multitude of such smaller groups, influential though they may be on particular events, is an almost impossible task.
To add to the confusion, prior to the Bolshevik Revolution the divisions within the socialist camps were not hard and fast. Many groups, such as the SDF, contained both statist marxists and anarchists amongst their ranks, and numerous individuals alternated between the two movements. Some did not recognise a distinction or straddled both camps. Given the problems of mapping groups coherently, some commentators have presented anarchism spatially, through the interconnectedness of ideas, rather than historically through the interaction of organisation fig.
The diagram from the s libertarian magazine Fatuous Times illustrates the many different theorists and movements that create the terrain of libertarianism.
The origins of British anarchism are not clear-cut. This aspiration often leads to the creation of inappropriate forebears and an inaccurate account of the movement. Anarchism is, in part, a product of industrialism and post-industrialism, modernity and post-modernity.
Actions from preceding eras can be emancipatory and conform to the basic criteria of anarchism, as outlined in the introduction, but the types of subjects or participants are not those associated with anarchism. Anarchism in Britain had foreign origins but would not have taken root unless there was a native born population receptive to its message and prepared by its own historical experiences. It grew from small and exotic beginnings to become a major cause of concern for the British State and an influence in breaking down divisions of race and ethnicity.
Res publica; this is the public thing. Now, whoever is concerned with public affairs, under whatever form of government may call himself a republican. Even kings are republicans. Although a friend of order, I am, in every sense of the term, an anarchist. Proudhon gained much support and notoriety in France for his views, yet his ideas remained, for the most part, confined to his native country. It was Michael Bakunin who spread the ideas of anarchism. If the first criterion, self-identification as anarchists, is used to assess the start of the British anarchist movement, then it starts as late as the s and is based on immigrant personalities and influences.
Furthermore, Britain received an influx of anarchists from the Continent, fleeing oppression from their countries of origin, amongst them Peter Kropotkin, Errico Malatesta, Johann Most and Rudolph Rocker. The models of anarchism had many international sources but found advocates and sympathisers amongst the native-born as well as recent immigrant communities. Initial hostility between the recent immigrants and the longer established communities was replaced by mutual support between the Little Wonders - Non Sufficient Funds (2) - One Red Cent (CD groups.
One of the native radical traditions was the Chartist movement, the precursor to the British socialist movement from which the anarchist movement developed.
Although the heyday of the Little Wonders - Non Sufficient Funds (2) - One Red Cent (CD was between —, it continued to have an identifiable influence later into the nineteenth century. Joe Lane and Frank Kitz, later to become active in the early anarchist movement, were supporters of the Chartists, the latter having taken part in the Hyde Park rally and disorders. These are relevant to the history of British anarchism because there were no clear-cut distinctions between anarchists and other versions of radicalism.
This remained the case until the Bolshevik revolution. Despite the infamous split between Michael Bakunin Album) Karl Marx in the First International inmany working class activists admired both anarchist and orthodox socialist personalities. The first of the influential foreign revolutionaries to come to Britain was Johann Most. He epitomised one of the ways in which anarchism emerged from the socialist movement. Following a contretemps with Bismarck, Most was forced to flee Berlin and arrived in London in Freiheit thereby stakes a strong claim to being the first anarchist newspaper printed in Britain, although it was intended for export back to Germany.
On March 15,Most held a rally to celebrate the assassination of the Tsar Alexander II that had taken place earlier that year. Four days later, he also wrote an editorial in praise of the killing. One of the vilest tyrants corroded through and through by corruption is no more [ Then he died as he deserved to die — like a dog. For this, Most was arrested for incitement to murder, and was indicted at Bow Street Magistrates Court. The subsequent trial at the Central Criminal Court, the later appeal and the sentence of sixteen months caused much press and public interest, especially as the conviction was considered a restriction on the freedom of the press.
The newspaper reports of the trial brought anarchism to a wider public. A week after he was released from prison Most emigrated to New York, taking his periodical with him. However, he did leave behind a group of committed radicals that sought to promote socialism through direct action. In this way it is similar to, although more scientifically accurate than, the more infamous Anarchist Cookbook.
The highlights were:. America also faced similar incidents, following state repression of industrial militants. These events promoted the association of anarchism with terrorism throughout Europe and America. There was a general perception that a worldwide conspiracy of assassins existed. Because in Britain political repression was less severe than elsewhere in Europe, propaganda by mouth was possible, meaning that propaganda by deed was less frequent.
However, this is not to say that the tactic of terror promulgated by Most was utterly neglected here. The Walsall anarchists, Charles, Cailes and Battola, were accused of conspiracy to conduct a terror campaign and held on explosives charges. How far there was any real conspiracy for a French style bombing campaign, or whether it was a pre-emptive strike by the nascent British political police fearing such a campaign, remains a matter of some dispute. The terroristic strand of anarchist activity was also evident in the incidents surrounding Leesma Flame cell number 5, a group of anti-tsarist revolutionaries originally from the Letts province of Russia involved in the December Sidney Street siege.
The robbery at a jewellery shop to provide funds for comrades back home went awry. In making their escape the thieves shot dead three policemen and injured two more. The events ended with Winston Churchill, the then Home Secretary, overseeing the deployment of Scots Guards to support the police, creating a strong combined force Little Wonders - Non Sufficient Funds (2) - One Red Cent (CD capture two cornered men, Fritz Svaars and William Sokolow.
Peter Piaktow Peter-the-Painterwho is most frequently associated with the events, had already fled. Svaars and Sokolow died in the house. Unsuccessful efforts were made to further incriminate the general anarchist movement. The Italian militant, engineer and electrician, Malatesta, was charged with involvement in the crime, as he had innocently provided the gang with the equipment to make a cutting torch, but he was released. Propaganda by deed was just one form of anarchist activity, although it was the one with which anarchists were most strongly associated.
This was not because anarchists placed greater emphasis on this rather than other tactics, but that they were unusual in accepting it as a legitimate tactic, under appropriate circumstances.
Propagandists of all types, including Kropotkin, supported it. So although anarchists, like other socialist groupings at the time, were also active in industrial organisation, it was the uniqueness of their occasional advocacy of propaganda by deed that was their most distinctive characteristic.
Even some of the French illegalists, who mainly used propaganda by deed, regarded it as just one method amongst many others. Anarchist industrial organisation had a great influence upon the Jewish immigrants in Britain who had fled from Tsarist Russia. The arrival of these refugees had been met with a marked increase in popular xenophobia.
Even the anarchists had been promoters of racism and anti-semitism. The French utopian socialist Charles Fourier, and allegedly Proudhon, had argued that J ews were habitually middlemen and exploiters, incapable of common feeling with their fellow man. Socialists and trade unionists such as Ben Tillett were anti-refugee. A petition demanding the exclusion of immigrants from Britain attracted 45, signatures in Tower Hamlets alone.
The principles of his Hebrew Socialist Union had much in common with anarchism. The Jewish Chronicle libelled the movement, claiming that it was a front for Christian missionaries.
Partly as a result of this harassment, Lieberman later left for America. Winchevsky left the paper when it supported the parliamentary candidature of the anti-socialist Sam Montagu, and set up in its place Der Arbeiter Fraint. During the period from tothe group around the paper gained the support of the English-speaking anarchist movement, as well as a sizeable section of the Jewish immigrant community; however it was with the assistance of Rudolf Rocker that its progress was most significant.
Although not Jewish, Rocker had worked with Jewish anarchists in France. He was sympathetic to the plight of the refugees and learnt Yiddish in order to help them. Its success prompted a request from Der Arbeiter Fraint for Rocker to come back and relaunch their paper.
The editorial and presentational skills of Rocker, along with his organisational and agitational abilities, transformed the Jewish movement into one of the most effective anarchist groupings in British history. Rocker was a syndicalist, and he encouraged the tactic of organising unions. The early Der Arbeiter Fraint had been unenthusiastic, regarding unions as a reformist distraction from building the immediate revolution.
They had concentrated instead on communal agitation, particularly against rabbinical authorities. It proved to be successful. Workplace agitation was attractive to Jewish refugees, as the ruling elite within this ethnic community championed social peace by claiming that Jewish interests were the same, whether worker or owner, whereas unionism recognised the vital differences in circumstances between employee and employer.
Syndicalism was a multi-faceted organisational tactic. It demonstrated the primacy of class division over ethnic division. It was a structure that could bring about a general transformation of society by being part of a General Strike and it could provide the basic administrative framework for the running of the new society.
The unions organised effective strikes within the workshops where immigrant workers were found. The period from to saw an increase in general industrial militancy with dockers, shipwrights, railwaymen and miners taking major strike action. Der Arbeiter Fraint set to work by calling a general strike. More than 3, stood outside. It was almost certainly the first and last to date daily anarchist paper in Britain. The strike was successful; immigrant and native workers struggled together to improve their lot, winning shorter hours, the abolition of piece work, and an improvement in the sanitation of their working conditions.
The SDF had been unenthusiastic about the role of trade unions, seeing them as restricted to skilled. In their place, they favoured parliamentary tactics. Syndicalists did not cause the increased industrial unrest that flared during the early part of the twentieth century but the wave of strikes confirmed that such tactics were a relevant form of action.
A pocket of syndicalism continued in Welsh mining communities for decades, even at the height of Communist influence. The Syndicalist was the newspaper of the Industrial Syndicalist Education League and claimed a circulation of 20, In the last two decades of the nineteenth century there were a number of anarchist newspapers available that began to reflect the diversity of anarchist methods and beliefs. The aforementioned Freiheit, with its links to revolutionary socialism and propaganda by deed, spawned an English language version in 18 82, published to rally support for Johann Most during his trial.
The papers acted as a means of communicating with other socialist militants and with the workers the potential agents of social change. Newssheets enabled the co-ordination of tactics such as public meetings, rallies and strikes.
Their distribution at rallies and meetings helped to put individuals in touch with groups and clubs. Successful periodicals also provided a source of finance: the importance of the newspaper to the revolutionary movement is discussed in more detail in the last chapter. The activists behind Der Arbeiter Fraint created anarchist meeting places in Whitechapel in London which acted like more recent radical social centres such as Emmaz in London, 1 in 12 Centre in Bradford and The Chalkboard in Glasgow.
Like the contemporary versions, the Jubilee Street club organised educational as well as social events. Entertainments such as dances attracted wider sections of working class communities into the anarchist milieu. Even if the participants did not become full anarchist militants, they were, at least, more likely to be sympathetic. Through lectures and anarchist papers, the clubs provided a source of radical ideas and debate — an arena in which to clarify and exchange political theories.
Newspapers, too, provided a role for such interchange. From the beginning, Freedom developed alliances with socialist and anarchist groups and periodicals throughout Britain and beyond. The willingness of socialists and anarchists, immigrants and locals to work together was evident in the large demonstrations against Tsarist oppression. A campaign was started calling for his release that united labour, socialist and anarchist movements.
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